本帖由 qwerty0 于 2012-11-11 发布。版面名称：基督教会
约伯记 26：7-8 神将北极铺在空中，将大地悬在虚空。将水包在密云中，云却不破裂
NIV：He spreads out the northern [skies] over empty space; he suspends the earth over nothing.
KJB：He stretcheth out the north over the empty place, and hangeth the earth upon nothing
2.1 接着在1539年，他又对盖伦的解剖学指南《论解剖程序》做了改进. one of his former professors published an attack on this version.
2.2 1541... ，However, some people still chose to follow Galen and resented Vesalius for calling attention to such glaring mistakes
2.3 Vesalius took up a position in the court, where he had to deal with the other physicians mocking him as being a barber
This elicited a new round of attacks on his work that called for him to be punished by the emperor. In 1551, Charles V commissioned an inquiry in Salamanca to investigate the religious implications of his methods. Vesalius' work was cleared by the board, but the attacks continued
简单介绍：共同生活兄弟会, 14世纪晚期在Deventer地区由神秘主义者Gerhard Groote和Florentius Radewijns成立。目的在于使个人的神圣化、做谦卑的基督的谦卑的追随者
In the 15th century the civil administration of the town of Leuven, with the support of John IV, Duke of Brabant, a prince of the House of Valois, made a formal request to the Holy See (圣座, 代表整个天主教会) for a university.
Pope Martin V issued a papal bull dated 9 December 1425 founding the University in Leuven as a Studium Generale.
Like the other early medieval universities (Bologna, Oxford, Salamanca, Cambridge, Padua), the University of Paris was already well established before it received a specific foundation act from the Church in 1200.
The university had four faculties: Arts, Medicine, Law, and Theology.
Bernard Palissy (c. 1510 – c. 1589) was a French Huguenot potter, hydraulics engineer and craftsman, famous for having struggled for sixteen years to imitate Chinese porcelain
Ten years later, Bernard Palissy began to lecture on the natural world. He used fossils as props for his talks. Unlike Agricola and Gesner, Palissy recognized that fossils are remains of living organisms. Throughout the 16th century, scholars, including Jerome Cardan, Andrea Cesalpino, and Gabriel Fallopio, debated the nature of fossils.
Palissy discussed fossils extensively. Like Xenophanes of Colophon, he believed them to be remnants of animals and plants. He firmly rejected the idea that they were detritus of the biblical flood, suggesting that inland fossils are found on site as the result of the congelation of a lake. He recognized the relation between these fossils and living species and, in some cases, extinct ones. He was one of the first to hold a reasonably correct view of the process of petrification.
Palissy converted to Protestantism in about 1546. He was one of the first Huguenots in Saintes, and was much persecuted for his religion. He was imprisoned in Bordeaux around 1559
Despite the protection of the nobles and the court, the fanatical outburst of 1588 associated with the War of the Three Henrys led to his being thrown into the Bastille. Although Henry III offered him his freedom if he would recant, Palissy refused to save his life on any such terms. Condemned to death when nearly eighty years of age, he died in a Bastille dungeon in 1589.
...fossil...He didn't escape every theological tight spot quite so easily; more than once, he was imprisoned for his Calvinist beliefs. Being an alchemist didn't help him avoid accusations of heresy, either. After two especially difficult years of imprisonment, he died in 1590.
* 在教皇格里高利一世（公元590年 ~公元604年）时期，古罗马图书馆也被付之一炬
* 希柏提亚（375-415) 是史上第一个为人所知的女数学家。吉朋在《罗马帝国衰亡史》中叙述时说：“她由车上被拉下来，剥脱衣服到一丝不挂，被拖至教堂，为一群野蛮而无人性的狂徒，用尖利的蚝将她的肉由骨上剥削下来，手脚砍下，抛掷火焰之中
＊希柏提亚生命后期亚历山大的主教是区利罗（Cyrillus Alexandrinus），其前任提阿非罗（Theophilus of Alexandria），两人都属于鹰派人物，与埃及总督奥雷斯特斯（Orestes）在亚历山大的统治权上有很多冲突
The decree of February 391: prohibited to enter in temples
- renewed the putting to the ban of any sacrifice, public or private
- prohibited the traditional ceremonies of State still in use in Rome
- nobody can approach the sacrifical altars, can walk inside the temples or can worship images forged by human hands
- "Testamentary Disqualification for Christian Apostates: Those who betray the sacred faith and profane holy baptism are shut off from association of all and from giving testimony.
They may not exercise the right of making a will, nor enter upon any inheritance; they may not be made anyone's heir."
The decree of 16 june 391: extension of the prohibitions
emanated in Aquileia, extends the previous dispositions also to Egypt, where Alexandria enjoyed, from ancient date, of special privileges relating to local cults, comprised the sacrifical ceremonies .
Prohibited the pagans pray in their homes
The third decree of 391: destroy the temples
In Alexandria the bishop Teophilus began a systematic campaign of destruction of the temples.
The fourth decree 8 November of 392: pain of death
- This decree instituted the death penalty for carrying out pagan sacrificial rituals and it demanded the confiscation of the property used in such practices
- the confiscation of the places where they carried out the rituals
- heavy fines for the decurions who did not apply the law faithfully
- the prohibition of libations, altars, votive offerings , torches, domestic divinity of the hearth, crowns and garlands, bands on the trees, etc.
Codex Theodosianus 16.1.2, February, 380, Theodosius and Gratian
We order all those who follow this law to assume the name of Catholic Christians, and considering others as demented and insane, we order that they shall bear the infamy of heresy; and when the Divine vengeance which they merit has been appeased, they shall afterwards be punished in accordance with Our resentment, which we have acquired from the judgment of Heaven
Codex Theodosianus 16.7.1, 381
The ability and right of making wills shall be taken from those who turn from Christians to pagans, and the testament of such an one, if he made any, shall be abrogated after his death
Codex Theodosianus 11.7.13
The Christian Emperor Theodosius and Gratian decreed the mandatory observation of the first day of the week as the Lord's day. -- 这就是我们星期天
Codex Theodosianus 16.7.2
Theodosius I promulgated a law that took away the testamentary rights of Christians who returned to paganism.
"We deny to Christians and the faithful who have adopted pagan rites and religion all power of making a will in favor of any person whatsoever, in order that they may be without the Roman law; ... even of enjoying a will with the power of acquiring an inheritance."
"The Right of Making a Will is denied Christians who enter Temples."
after the General Council of Chalcedon 451, Emperor Marcian did the clergy's bidding and outlawed public discussions of the nature of Christ.
decree of January of 381, Theodosius
If, however, any seditious outbreak should be attempted, We order them to be driven outside the the walls of the City, with relentless violence, and We direct that all Catholic Churches, throughout the entire world, shall be placed under the control of the orthodox bishops who have embraced the Nicene Creed
In February of 391, 16.7 of the Theodosian Code
Nobody can approach the sacrificial altars, can walk inside the temples or can worship images forged by human hands.
Salminius Hermias Sozomenus, Histories Book 7
About this period, the bishop of Alexandria, to whom the temple of Dionysus had, at his own request, been granted by the emperor, converted the edifice into a church. The statues were removed, the adyta were exposed; and, in order to cast contumely on the pagan mysteries, he made a procession for the display of these objects; the phalli, and whatever other object had been concealed in the adyta which really was, or seemed to be, ridiculous, he made a public exhibition of. The pagans, amazed at so unexpected an exposure, could not suffer it in silence, but conspired together to attack the Christians.
They killed many of the Christians, wounded others, and seized the Serapion, a temple which was conspicuous for beauty and vastness and which was seated on an eminence. This they converted into a temporary citadel; and hither they conveyed many of the Christians, put them to the torture, and compelled them to offer sacrifice. Those who refused compliance were crucified, had both legs broken, or were put to death in some cruel manner. When the sedition had prevailed for some time, the rulers came and urged the people to remember the laws, to lay down their arms, and to give up the Serapion.
... ... he declared that the Christians who had been slain were blessed, inasmuch as they had been admitted to the honor of martyrdom, and had suffered in defense of the faith. He offered free pardon to those who had slain them, hoping that by this act of clemency they would be the more readily induced to embrace Christianity; and he commanded the demolition of the temples in Alexandria which had been the cause of the popular sedition. It is said that, when this imperial edict was read in public, the Christians uttered loud shouts of joy, because the emperor laid the odium of what had occurred upon the pagans.
There were still pagans in many cities ... ... and that at last, they even carried their audacity to such a height, as to slay a bishop named Marcellus. This bishop had commanded the demolition of all the temples in the city and villages ... ... He stationed himself at a distance from the scene of conflict, beyond the reach of the arrows ... ... Whilst the soldiers and gladiators were engaged in the assault against the temple, some pagans, discovering that he was alone, hastened to the place where he was separated from the combat; they arose suddenly and seized him, and burnt him alive.
Seizing this opportunity, Theophilus exerted himself to the utmost to expose the pagan mysteries to contempt.
Thus this disturbance having been terminated, the governor of Alexandria, and the commander-in-chief of the troops in Egypt, assisted Theophilus in demolishing the heathen temples. These were therefore burned to the ground, and the images of their gods molten into pots and other convenient utensils for the use of the Alexandrian church; for the emperor had instructed Theophilus to distribute them for the relief of the poor. All the images were accordingly broken to pieces, except one statue of the god before mentioned, which Theophilus preserved and set up in a public place; `Lest,´ said he, `at a future time the heathens should deny that they had ever worshipped such gods.
The Arians, who were still very strong in point of numbers, and who, through the protection formerly granted by Constantius and Valens ... ... but the chief cause of their apprehension was the reasoning power of Eunomius. The emperor, about this period, condemned Eunomius to banishment. This heretic had fixed his residence in the suburbs of Constantinople, and held frequent churches in private houses, where he read his own writings. He induced many to embrace his sentiments, so that the sectarians, who were named after him, became very numerous.