精华 学习历史:黑暗的中世纪?

本帖由 qwerty02012-11-11 发布。版面名称:基督教会

  1. qwerty0

    qwerty0 阿Q先生 ID:106531 VIP

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    Wiki关于狄奥多西期间对异教徒prosecution的完整描述

    用俺自己的话转述是:
    1、在几十年间,狄奥多西一世和他的继任者对异教徒的态度有反复,既有全面禁止任何除了‘正统基督教’以外的宗教活动 ,到任命异教徒为地方总督,重修犹太教会堂

    2、所有prosecution都是以法律形式明确,所有法律和诏书现在仍然在案。这些法律大致是这样的:
    2.1 摧毁异教徒寺庙和异教徒偶像,或者充公、改造成教堂
    2.2 对异教徒的宗教活动的处罚可能是没收财产,包括房子,以及罚款
    2.3 对离开的基督教徒的处罚是取消定遗嘱的权力,不清楚是不是这意味着死后他的财产会被没收
    2.4 有两处提到对占卜和“carrying out pagan sacrificial rituals”处以死刑,但没有查到在这这几十年prosecution期间异教徒死亡的任何统计信息或者任何个例的详细描述 -当然没有记载不等于没有发生,但是既然没有具体材料,就不能轻易下结论

    3、相反,上面多个帖子已经提到了5世纪历史文献关于在这期间关于异教徒杀死基督徒的诸多事例

    4、奇怪的是,很少在中文版本的反基督教材料中看到狄奥多西一世对帖撒罗尼迦7000人屠杀的指控,下帖再讲
     
  2. qwerty0

    qwerty0 阿Q先生 ID:106531 VIP

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    帖撒罗尼迦7000人屠杀事件

    390年,希腊城市帖撒罗尼迦的总督,或者是罗马皇帝派驻的最高军事长官 Butheric,逮捕了一名很受欢迎的战车御者(一名当时的体育明星),这个同性恋者试图强奸一名cupbearer(百度讲他是一名奴隶,实际上cupbearer是在当时宗教仪式上有相当地位的人,可能不是奴隶),占当地大多数人口的人要求Butheric释放这个人,遭到拒绝后,当地发生了暴动,包括Butheric在内的多名高级军官被杀死

    狄奥多西一世听闻后暴怒,派军队到帖撒罗尼迦镇压,很快狄奥多西一世改变主意,派使者去制止军队屠杀,但是已经造成了估计7000人被杀

    米兰主教安波罗修(Ambrose)拒绝皇帝领圣餐,并威胁要将他开除出教,直到狄奥多西进行几个月的告解后,他才能再次领受圣餐

    下面是主教Ambrose给皇帝的一封信:

    What could I do? Should I not hear? But I could not clog my ears with wax, as old fables tell. Should I then speak about what I heard? But I was obliged to avoid precisely what I feared could be brought about by your orders, that is, a bloodshed. Should I remain silent? But then the worst thing would happen as my conscience would be bound and my words taken away. And where would they be then? When a priest does not talk to a sinner, then the sinner will die in his sin, and the priest will be guilty because he failed to correct him
     
  3. qwerty0

    qwerty0 阿Q先生 ID:106531 VIP

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    作为一个横向参考,中国历史上三个大规模灭佛事件三武一宗:

    会昌灭佛

    唐武宗会昌年间的一次废佛运动。唐代后期,由于佛教寺院土地不输课税,僧侣免除赋役,佛教寺院经济过分扩张,损害了国库收入,与普通地主也存在着矛盾。唐武宗崇信道教,深恶佛教,会昌年间又因讨伐泽潞,财政急需,在道士赵归真的鼓动和李德裕的支持下,于会昌五年 (845)四月,下令清查天下寺院及僧侣人数。五月,又命令长安、洛阳左右街各留二寺,每寺僧各三十人。天下诸郡各留一寺,寺分三等,上寺二十人,中寺十人,下寺五人。八月,令天下诸寺限期拆毁;括天下寺四千六百余所,兰若(私立的僧居)四万所。拆下来的寺院材料用来修缮政府廨驿,金银佛像上交国库,铁像用来铸造农器,铜像及钟、磬用来铸钱。没收寺产良田数千万顷(此数过大,疑“顷”为“亩”之讹),奴婢十五万人。僧尼迫令还俗者共二十六万零五百人,释放供寺院役使的良人五十万以上。政府从废佛运动中得到大量财物、土地和纳税户。

    会昌二年(公元842)唐武宗开始没收寺院财产;会昌三年,唐武宗下“杀沙门令”;仅因为谣传有藩镇的奸细假扮僧人藏在京师,京兆府在长安城中打杀而死的裹头僧就有三百余人。会昌四年,敕令尽拆大型寺院、佛堂,勒令僧尼还俗;会昌五年,唐武宗又对灭佛的成果进行了巩固,勒令全国东西二都可以留寺两所,每寺留僧30人,天下各节度使治所留寺一所,留僧从5人-30人不等。其它寺庙全部拆毁,僧尼全部还俗。此次灭佛的成果是,为唐王室收缴了良田数千万顷,强迫还俗的僧尼26万人,拆寺4600所,可谓“战绩辉煌”,但对僧尼们来说无异于一场少有的浩劫。

    北周武帝灭佛

    当时北周的佛教,已经成为了社会的寄生虫。寺院的和尚们不但不当兵,不纳税,且面对灾民时,表现出来的非但不是赈灾,反而趁机吞并人口和土地,使农民生活更加困苦。灭佛这一策略暗暗在宇文邕心中生成。公元574年,他最终强制僧侣强制灭佛,这不仅增加了朝廷的财政收入,更是扩充了军队

    北周式帝宣布废佛,令僧尼还俗,并允许辩论。这次灭法只毁像破塔烧经,令僧尼还俗,不杀僧人。共还俗僧人300万人,退寺院4万座,这是历史上的第二次灭法

    [url="http://baike.baidu.com/view/56491.htm]太武灭佛[/url]

    在拓跋焘镇压盖吴起义的同时,发现关中地区的佛寺内藏匿武器,拓跋焘怀疑僧侣与盖吴相勾结,于是在446年下诏灭佛。宣布佛教为邪教,在各地焚毁所有的佛像和佛经,沙门无少长悉坑之,禁止佛教的传播

    在438年,拓跋焘诏令五十岁以下沙门尽皆还俗,以从征役,解决翌年西伐北凉所需的人力问题,在444年,拓跋焘又下灭佛诏,指责沙门之徒,假西戎虚诞,生致妖孽,非所以壹齐政化,布淳德于天下。规定自王公以下至于庶人,有私养沙门及师巫、金银工巧之人在家者,限于二月十五日前遣送官曹,不得藏匿。过期不送,一经查实,沙门身死,主人门诛,以加强政治控制。在446年下诏灭佛更是使佛教遭受了毁灭性的打击
     
  4. CHRIS88

    CHRIS88 基督门徒 ID:68059 管理成员 VIP

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    中世纪罗马教廷把独裁君王的权利关进了笼子、中世纪的宗教裁判所把部分裁判权从独裁君王的手中剥离出来。这是现代民主制衡机制、司法独立体制的基础和发端。
     
  5. qwerty0

    qwerty0 阿Q先生 ID:106531 VIP

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    回到希柏提亚的正题。早期文献提到希柏提亚之死只有三个来源,后来人所有的历史研究、小说、电影应该都是直接间接来源于它们:

    同时代 Christian church historian Socrates Scholasticus的Ecclesiastical History

    这也是这个时间唯一一个同时代的信息来源,也是最被广泛接受的版本:

    她是受到政治嫉妒的受害者,在那段日子里这种现象很常见。由于她经常与欧瑞斯提斯晤面,在基督徒中便有谤言流传,说就是她在阻挡欧瑞斯提斯与>总主教和好。也因此,有些基督徒就受到怒火与执迷的热血驱使,由一个名叫彼得(Peter)的礼拜朗诵士为首,埋伏在希帕提娅返家的路上,将她拖出马车,带到一所叫做西赛隆(Caesarion)的教堂中脱个精光,以砖瓦杀死了她并将她分尸。她伤痕累累的四肢则被带到一个叫做辛那隆(Cinaron)的地方焚烧。

    约100年后Damascius's Life of Isidore

    他没有详细描述Hypatia被杀的过程,但是直接指出这是由亚历山大主教Cyril直接指示的阴谋。同时,这也是唯一一个将此事的直接责任指向Cyril的历史文献,wiki认为“Historians disagree over the extent of his responsibility for these events”

    7世纪John, Bishop of Nikiu,Chronicle

    “他显然是取材自所奎德,但做出不同结论,并将希帕提娅描写成一个巫婆”,这个描述被受到较多的质疑

    那段日子的亚历山大城里出现了一个女哲学家,一个叫做希帕提娅的异教徒。她所有的时间都投入魔法、天体观测仪以及乐器上,以她恶魔的巧计哄骗许多人。该城的地方长官对她过度尊崇,因为她也以魔法将他玩弄于股掌之间,他再也不像从前那样固定上教堂……一群虔信上帝的信仰者聚集在一起,跟随着司法官彼得的指引──他现在是完美的信徒,全心敬信耶稣基督──开始搜寻这个以魔力诱惑官员与市民误入歧途的异教女人,当他们发现她的下落,便上前接近,发现她高高地端坐在椅子上,为了让她下来,他们将她拉到地上,带到一所名叫西赛隆的大教堂中,撕去她的衣服,将她带到大街上拖行示众,直到她死去。他们又将她带到一个叫做辛那隆的地方,以火焚烧她的尸体,于是所有的人围绕着总主教(patriarch)西里尔,称他为‘提阿非罗再世’,因为他摧毁了亚历山大城中偶像崇拜最后的余毒。
     
  6. qwerty0

    qwerty0 阿Q先生 ID:106531 VIP

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    结合前面的背景材料,阿Q是这样看Hypatia事件的:

    亚历山大城是一个文化大熔炉,希腊神话的多神教信仰、犹太教和基督教信徒之间的冲突比较厉害,世纪之交罗马皇帝一系列针对异教的Prosecution明显加剧了这个冲突

    罗马帝国正在建立一个全新的政教合一的新型政权,但是世俗政权与基督教各级主教之间的权力并没有明确的分配,存在不可避免的冲突. 尽管Orestes声称是受洗的基督徒,但从整个事件过程看,他可以被认为是世俗政权的代表。埃及总督Orestes和亚历山大主教Cyril都是属于鹰派 ...

    由基督教会充当急先锋的毁灭异教教堂的行动肯定掀起了希腊多神教和犹太人的强烈不满,接下来的几个事件终于将冲突推向高潮

    Orestes在剧场颁布关于限制犹太人dancing exhibitions聚会的诏令,Cyril派Hierax去打听诏令内容。被犹太人认为是对他们的挑衅并引起了暴乱,Orestes逮捕Hierax并当众将他Torture

    当地犹太人有计划地杀害了许多基督徒。一夜,街上有人叫喊“亚历山大的教堂着火了”,导致大量基督徒涌向教堂。犹太人便按预定计划屠杀基督徒。黎明,Cyril带领基督徒关闭犹太教会堂,将所有犹太人(亦有记载指只是杀人犯)驱逐出城,但放逐本来应是总督奥雷斯特斯的权力

    五百名来自尼帝亚(Nitria)的修士为了支持教牧来到亚历山大... 在骚乱中,一名修士Ammonius以石头袭击Orestes至头破流血。Orestes的卫士害怕遭到群众的石刑而逃走,广场上的其他人将奥雷斯特斯救出,并逮捕了Ammonius。Orestes伤好后,将Ammonius当众折磨至死。奥雷斯特斯和区利罗事后各自将事件上诉至当时的罗马皇帝狄奥多西二世。虽然不少基督徒亦知道Ammonius是因为行动过份而被处死,但区利罗却将Ammonius尊奉为殉道者

    Cyril希望和Orestes和好但遭到拒绝,不明白为什么Hypatia会被认为是他们和好之间的绊脚石。不管如何,一些不理智的基督教暴徒使这个悲剧发生了, 疑惑在于:

    1、整个冲突事件中,看不出任何与Hypatia哲学家、数学家、天文学家这些身份相关的任何信息。不能因为科学家被谋杀就扣上反科学的罪名. 否则阿基米德被罗马军队打死,应该怎么看?为什么从来没有人指责没有神的古罗马逼迫科学?

    2、Hypatia远不是唯一一个被谋杀的人,不能孤立地评论她的死,必须放在整个事件背景中看问题

    3、对于当时的prosecute异教的行动,俺感觉在罗马帝国的政策、法律层面,和基督教会的实际执行中,从异教徒生命安全的角度看,就算那今天的标准衡量,仍然是不暴力的
     
  7. qwerty0

    qwerty0 阿Q先生 ID:106531 VIP

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    回到科学与基督教的主题,换个角度,不再从逆向看问题。突然想到以下几个问题:

    1、科学究竟是什么?该如何定义?
    2、适合现代科学孕育的土壤是什么?适合现代科学继续长大的土壤又是什么?
    3、假设一下,如果古典希腊文化没有被“黑暗的一千年”打断,它自身能不能哺育出现代科学来?
    4、反过来问,2000年前中国哲学、科学就已经到了相当的高度,也没有被“黑暗的一千年”遮住,为什么没有孕育出现代文明、现代科学?可能很多人在抱怨明清的闭关锁国政策。闭关锁国只是挡住了向别人学习的道路,并没有回答现代科技为什么没有在中国孕育的问题

    修整一段时间,再继续学习
     
  8. qwerty0

    qwerty0 阿Q先生 ID:106531 VIP

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    关于中国的问题,简单google一下,“1915年任鸿隽在《科学》创刊号上发表《说中国无科学的原因》,1922年冯友兰在《国际伦理学杂志》上用英文发表《为什么中国没有科学──对中国哲学的历史及其后果的一种解释》一文,直到1944年竺可桢发表《中国古代为什么没有产生自然科学?》一文,意见都相同的(古中国没有科学!)”
    http://www.chinaconfucius.cn/Article/ShowArticle.asp?ArticleID=3099

    下面这个文章是一个大杂烩,列出了一大堆的原因解释为什么中国没有发展出现代科技。
    http://shc2000.sjtu.edu.cn/article2/cqysrskx.htm

    可能很多人认为中国古代科学一直领先于世界,只有到了明清才开始落后。但是想想早在宋朝,宋江还没有落草的时候,欧洲第一个现代意义上的大学博洛尼亚大学(1088年)已经开张了,再看看15、16世纪欧洲的一些科技成果,在对比中国古代的科技成就。俺认为关键不在于个别成就更高?而在于是不是知其然也知其所以然,是不是成体系,有没有哲学思想的支持、有没有科学研究机构/培训机构(大学)等等。。。
     
  9. qwerty0

    qwerty0 阿Q先生 ID:106531 VIP

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    1158或1155年腓特烈一世签署,并经教皇亚历山大三世确认,给欧洲第一个现代大学博洛尼亚大学颁布了一个
    [url="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Authentica_habita]保障大学学术自由的法律[/url],which guaranteed the right of a traveling scholar to unhindered passage in the interests of education. Today this is claimed as the origin of "academic freedom":

    Scholars from all over Europe had begun to travel to Bologna to study civil and canon law, and newly rediscovered works of Roman law, from the mid 11th century. As foreigners there, they found themselves without legal protection. A particular difficulty was the practice of the Right of Reprisal, where their property could be seized on foot of debts incurred by their countrymen.

    The document grants several rights and protections to scholars including:

    1、Similar immunities and freedoms as those held by the clergy, provided they conformed to certain attributes, such as clerical dress;

    2、Freedom of movement and travel for the purposes of study;

    3、Immunity from the right of reprisal; and

    4、The right to be tried by their masters, or the Bishops court, rather than local civil courts.
     
  10. qwerty0

    qwerty0 阿Q先生 ID:106531 VIP

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    宋朝期间欧洲建立的另外两所大学:

    University of Oxford

    牛津大学建立时间不详,因为那并不是一个独立的事件,它可以追溯到1096年于那里开始的教学。当英法关系恶化,英王亨利二世于1167年禁止英国学生在巴黎大学学习后,牛津开始迅速发展。也就是从此时开始,第一个学校公寓建立,之后逐渐成为学院。1209年,由于学生暴力行为,大学被解散(此事件导致了一些学生和教师离开牛津并建立了剑桥大学)。1214年6月20日,经过一名教皇使节的磋商,大学重新回到了牛津,并得到了特许。牛津大学的身份直到1571年通过的一项法案而得到证实的确定

    [url="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/University_of_Salamanca#History]University of Salamanca in Spain[/url]

    Its origin, like all older universities, was a Cathedral School, whose existence can be traced back to 1130.

    On the basis of a papal bull by Alexander IV in 1255, which confirmed the Royal Charter of Alfonso X, the school obtained the title of University, the first in Europe

    Among the earliest universities of this type were :
    University of Bologna (1088)
    University of Paris (teach. mid-11th century, recogn. 1150)
    University of Oxford (teach. 1096, recogn. 1167)
    University of Modena (1175)
    University of Palencia (1208)
    University of Cambridge (1209)
    University of Salamanca (1218)
    University of Montpellier (1220)
    University of Padua (1222)
    University of Toulouse (1229)
    University of Orleans (1235)
    University of Siena (1240)
    University of Coimbra (1288)
     
  11. qwerty0

    qwerty0 阿Q先生 ID:106531 VIP

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    Another step was when Pope Alexander III in 1179 "forbidding masters of the church schools to take fees for granting the license to teach (licentia docendi), and obliging them to give license to properly qualified teachers".

    The University of Paris was formally recognized when Pope Gregory IX issued the bull Parens scientiarum (1231). This was a revolutionary step: studium generale (university) and universitas (corporation of students or teachers) existed even before, but after the issuing of the bull, they attained autonomy. "The papal bull of 1233, which stipulated that anyone admitted to be a teacher in Toulouse had the right to teach everywhere without further examinations (ius ubique docendi), in time, transformed this privilege into the single most important defining characteristic of the university and made it the symbol of its institutional autonomy . . .

    Universities were generally structured along three types, depending on who paid the teachers. The first type was in Bologna, where students hired and paid for the teachers. The second type was in Paris, where teachers were paid by the church. Oxford and Cambridge were predominantly supported by the crown and the state... At the Bologna university the students ran everything -- a fact that often put teachers under great pressure and disadvantage. In Paris, teachers ran the school; thus Paris became the premiere spot for teachers from all over Europe. Also, in Paris the main subject matter was theology, so control of the qualifications awarded was in the hands of an external authority - the Chancellor of the diocese. In Bologna, where students chose more secular studies, the main subject was law.
     
  12. focus on today

    focus on today 资深人士 ID:85601

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    似乎在传统观念中没有“定论”,既没有“定论”,那也就没有必要去做“重复,试验,验证”等基于"有定论'' 的工作。相信一定有”不变“的东西隐藏于”不可捉摸的变的东西“之中,才有可能去做那些旨在“发现定论”的现代科学研究。愚见而已。
     
  13. qwerty0

    qwerty0 阿Q先生 ID:106531 VIP

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    Condemnations of 1210–1277, 一个宗教直接改变科学发展的事件

    没耐心看完,大意是1210年和1277年,巴黎主教 Étienne Tempie 出于神学的考虑,禁止在巴黎大学教授一系列亚里士多德和Averroism的经典物理学、神学、哲学,历史学家们对此事的评估:

    Pierre Duhem considered that these condemnations "destroyed certain essential foundations of Peripatetic physics".

    From at least 1280 onward, many masters at Paris and Oxford admitted that the laws of nature are certainly opposed to the production of empty space, but that the realisation of such a space is not, in itself, contrary to reason. These arguments gave rise to the branch of mechanical science known as dynamics.

    According to Duhem, "if we must assign a date for the birth of modern science, we would, without doubt, choose the year 1277 when the bishop of Paris solemnly proclaimed that several worlds could exist, and that the whole of heavens could, without contradiction, be moved with a rectilinear motion."

    Historians in the field no longer fully endorse Duhem‘s view that modern science started in 1277. What historians do agree is that the condemnations allowed science "to consider possibilities that the great philosopher never envisioned."

    According to the historian of science Richard Dales, they "seem definitely to have promoted a freer and more imaginative way of doing science."

    更多的细节:http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/condemnation/
     
  14. qwerty0

    qwerty0 阿Q先生 ID:106531 VIP

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    [url="http://jameshannam.com/medievalscience.htm]另外一些对中世纪大学和科学情况的介绍[/url]

    Natural philosophy, or natural science as it was sometimes called, was one of the key subjects taught at medieval universities

    By the fourteenth century, the university had become the centrepiece of European intellectual life

    The previously unknown notion of the university as a self-governing academic institution did not appear until the Middle Ages and it can be argued that it was one of the most important advances in the history of ideas

    Typically new students arrived at university at the age of fifteen and were matriculated into the university Arts Faculty. Here, they would be taught the subjects viewed as essential to tackle everything else: logic and natural philosophy based on the works of Aristotle. After three or four years of study the student had to settle a disputation and, if successful, became a Bachelor of the Arts. Then, after another year or two, he took part in a final disputation with his Master and was incepted as a Master of the Arts. This meant the student could now do two things to continue his academic career, either become a teacher (a Regent Master) in the Arts Faculty at any university as allowed by the ius ubique docendi (the right to teach anywhere) or start to study for a doctorate at one of the higher faculties of Medicine, Civil and Canon Law or Theology

    The greatest privilege of being a student or teacher at university was that of being treated as a clergyman under law, which meant they had a high level of immunity to secular justice and were instead tried by the much gentler ecclesiastical courts. Furthermore, an advantage of being self-governing corporations was that a university was responsible for its own disciplinary arrangements and rarely had to deal with outside authorities.
     
  15. qwerty0

    qwerty0 阿Q先生 ID:106531 VIP

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    大学出现之前的欧洲教育情况怎样呢?简单看看Cathedral school的历史

    当然天主教学校建立的初衷是为了培养神职人员。The earliest evidence of a school established in this manner is in Visigothic Spain at the Second Council of Toledo in 527...

    Charlemagne, king of the Franks and later Emperor... In 789, 查理曼大帝's Admonitio Generalis required that schools be established in every monastery and bishopric, in which "children can learn to read; that psalms, notation, chant, computation, and grammar be taught."

    Cathedral schools at this time were primarily run by a group of ministers and divided into two parts: Schola minor which was intended for younger students would later become elementary schools. Then there was the schola major, which taught older students. These would later become secondary schools.

    The subjects taught at Cathedral schools ranged from literature to mathematics. These topics were called the seven liberal arts: grammar, astronomy, rhetoric (or speech), logic, arithmetic, geometry and music. In grammar classes, students were trained to read, write and speak Latin which was the universal language in Europe at the time. Astronomy was necessary for calculating dates and times. Rhetoric was a major component of a vocal education. Logic consisted of discovering the art of solving mathematical problems, and arithmetic served as the basis for quantitative reasoning. Students read stories and poems in Latin by authors such as Cicero and Virgil. Much as in the present day, cathedral schools were split into elementary and higher schools with different curricula. The elementary school curriculum was composed of reading, writing and psalmody, while the high school curriculum was trivium (grammar, rhetoric and dialect), the rest of the liberal arts, as well as scripture study and pastoral theology.
     

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