精华 学习历史:黑暗的中世纪?

本帖由 qwerty02012-11-11 发布。版面名称:基督教会

  1. qwerty0

    qwerty0 阿Q先生 ID:106531 VIP

    注册:
    2012-03-04
    帖子:
    912
    支持:
    67
    声望:
    88
    金钱:
    $14,531
    差不多同时出现的修道院学校

    修道院学校在西元五世纪成立,最先是以教育修士和修女为目的,后来才扩展成也教育一般民众。

    修道院学校教授七艺,或称三门普通学科(数学、辩证法、修辞学)和四门高级学科(算术、几何学、天文学、音乐)。他们为之后的教育机构培养了教师人材,也因此是中古世纪大学的前身。

    ... 人们将修道院学校分成对外开放给一般民众的学校,特别是地主(Junker),以及对内给未来的修士上的学校。

    课程包括七艺、神学课程,像是圣经课,以及学习教会的规定和戒条。
     
  2. qwerty0

    qwerty0 阿Q先生 ID:106531 VIP

    注册:
    2012-03-04
    帖子:
    912
    支持:
    67
    声望:
    88
    金钱:
    $14,531
    学习了中世纪的教会学校、大学的简单历史,阿Q不禁联想到几个问题:

    1、神学在中世纪这些学校里面远非全部,而是涉及到了语言、数学、科学、音乐、哲学(?)等,就算那今天的标准衡量,仍然是相当全面的。“Logic consisted of discovering the art of solving mathematical problems, and arithmetic served as the basis for quantitative reasoning”

    2、平行看东林书院,与欧洲第一所大学博洛尼亚大学差不多同时成立,两者如何比较?从教授范围、思想自由、法律保障、办学目的等等,岂可同日而语?

    3、了解不深,不敢对“禁锢思想”这个指控讲太多。但是横向比较,谁有资格指责中世纪的教会学校,以及由教会学校发展起来的大学体系?

    4、古希腊从柏拉图开始的Academy传统由于在6中世纪就中断,难以判断其对后世教育体系形成的贡献;孔子的三千门徒、中国几千年的传统文化,对现在教育体系的形成贡献了多少?

    5、尽管阿Q所学有限,仍然认为可以下这个结论:现代的教育体系就是在基督教的直接影响下形成的
     
  3. qwerty0

    qwerty0 阿Q先生 ID:106531 VIP

    注册:
    2012-03-04
    帖子:
    912
    支持:
    67
    声望:
    88
    金钱:
    $14,531

    附件文件:

  4. qwerty0

    qwerty0 阿Q先生 ID:106531 VIP

    注册:
    2012-03-04
    帖子:
    912
    支持:
    67
    声望:
    88
    金钱:
    $14,531
    另一种意见:
     

    附件文件:

  5. qwerty0

    qwerty0 阿Q先生 ID:106531 VIP

    注册:
    2012-03-04
    帖子:
    912
    支持:
    67
    声望:
    88
    金钱:
    $14,531
    more
     

    附件文件:

  6. qwerty0

    qwerty0 阿Q先生 ID:106531 VIP

    注册:
    2012-03-04
    帖子:
    912
    支持:
    67
    声望:
    88
    金钱:
    $14,531
    more
     

    附件文件:

  7. qwerty0

    qwerty0 阿Q先生 ID:106531 VIP

    注册:
    2012-03-04
    帖子:
    912
    支持:
    67
    声望:
    88
    金钱:
    $14,531
    more
     

    附件文件:

  8. cvictor

    cvictor 本站元老 ID:52072 VIP

    注册:
    2005-06-12
    帖子:
    17,384
    支持:
    1,049
    声望:
    373
    金钱:
    $1,410
    古代科学,也就是一些猜想和说法。但是这些修道院的已经分科了的课程,比过去中国的强。
     
  9. 耶野野

    耶野野 新手上路 ID:114325

    注册:
    2012-11-10
    帖子:
    24
    支持:
    14
    声望:
    0
    金钱:
    $3,009
    杀光不信者是旧约写的,十字军的屠杀就是杀异教
    +++++++++++++++++++++++++++
    申 20:17 只要照耶和华你 神所吩咐的、将这些人、亚摩利人、迦南人、比利洗人、希未人、耶布斯人、都灭绝淨尽.


    申13:16:“(对于异教徒),要把他们全部杀死,连他们城里的牲畜都要用刀杀尽。”

    申 20:13 耶和华你的神、把城交付你手、你就要用刀杀尽这城的男丁。


    申31:17-18:“所以,你们要把一切的男孩和所有已嫁的女子都杀了。但女孩子中,凡没有出嫁的,你们都可以存留她的活命。”

    十字军东征
    (The Crusades,拉丁文:Cruciata,1096-1291)是一系列在罗马天主教教皇的准许下,由西欧的封建领主和骑士对地中海东岸的国家发动的持续了近200年的宗教性战争。由于罗马天主教圣城耶路撒冷落入伊斯兰教徒手中,十字军东征大多数是针对伊斯兰教国家的,主要的目的是从伊斯兰教手中夺回耶路撒冷。东征期间,教会授予每一个战士十字架,组成的军队称为十字军。十字军东征一般被认为是天主教的暴行。尽管如此,十字军东征使西欧直接接触到了当时更为先进的拜占庭文明和伊斯兰文明。这种接触,为欧洲的文艺复兴开辟了道路。十字军东侵是罗马教廷、西欧封建主和意大利城市对近东各国发动的侵略战争,他们借口反对异教徒,打着圣战的旗号,对东部地中海各国进行长达两个世纪之久的侵略战争。罗马教廷称这场战争是宗教战争, 八次远征示意图即是基督教反对穆斯林、十字架反对弯月的战争。弯月指新月,是伊斯兰教的象征。十字架是基督教的象征。每个参加出征的人,包括骑士、农民、小手工业者在内,胸前和臂上都佩有“十”字标记,故称“十字军”。


    基督教摧毁希腊文化编年纪事
    330 年
    康斯坦丁皇帝为了装饰自己的新国都 Nova Roma (君士坦丁堡),大量掠夺希腊异教神庙里的财富和雕像

    341 年
    Flavius Julius Constantius 皇帝(康斯坦丁皇帝的儿子)迫害所有的算卦人和希腊文化者,众多的希腊异教徒被捕或被处死。

    346 年
    君士坦丁堡新一轮的大规模异教徒迫害。著名演说家 Libanios 被作为魔术师放逐。

    354 年
    Flavius Julius Constantius 皇帝另下新旨,命令摧毁异教神庙、处死所有偶像崇拜者,帝国境内不同的城市首次有图书馆被烧毁。被关闭的神庙附近出现了第一批石灰厂,一大部分异教建筑被加工为石灰。


    370 年
    皇帝 Valens 下令在整个东罗马帝国对异教徒进行迫害,在 Antiochia ,除了众多的异教徒,前总督 Fiustius 以及祭司 Hilarius 和 Patricius 被处死,东罗马帝国许多城市大量书籍被烧。前皇帝 Iulianus 所有的朋友都受到排挤,哲学家 Simonides 被活活烧死,另一位哲学家 Maximus 被杀头。

    372 年
    皇帝 Valens 命令小亚细亚的总督,消除一切希腊文化追随者和希腊智慧的文献。

    .......


    http://xys7.dxiong.com/xys/ebooks/others/history/foreign/jidujiao_xila.txt


    耶稣的行为够善嘛?
    1耶稣的暴力:


    路加福音
    19:27不要我作他們的王的那些敵人,把他們帶來,在我面前殺掉吧!

    馬太福音
    12:32凡說話干犯人子的、還可得赦免.惟獨說話干犯聖靈的、今世來世總不得赦免。

    馬太福音
    25:41你們這被咒詛的人、離開我、進入那為魔鬼和他的使者所豫備的永火裏去。

    約翰福音
    3:36信子的人有永生;不信子的人得不著永生,神的震怒常在他身上。

    約翰福音
    15:6人若不常在我裏面,就像枝子丟在外面枯幹,人拾起來,扔在火裏燒了。”

    耶稣和蛇神:

    《旧约》:
    《民数记》 21:4-9节
    他们从何珥山起行,往红海那条路走,要绕过以东地。百姓因这路难行,心中甚是烦躁,就怨渎 神和摩西说:“你们为什么把我们从埃及领出来,使我们死在旷野呢?这里没有粮,没有水,我们的心厌恶这淡薄的食物。” 于是,耶和华使火蛇进入百姓中间,蛇就咬他们,以色列人中死了许多。百姓到摩西那里说:“我们怨渎耶和华和你,有罪了,求你祷告耶和华,叫这些蛇离开我们。”于是,摩西为百姓祷告。 耶和华对摩西说:“你制造一条火蛇,挂在杆子上,凡被咬的,一望这蛇,就必得活。” 摩西便制造一条铜蛇,挂在杆子上,凡被蛇咬的,一望这铜蛇,就活了。《列王记下》 18:3-4节。 希西家行耶和华眼中看为正的事,效法他祖大卫一切所行的。 他废去邱坛,毁坏柱像,砍下木偶,打碎摩西所造的铜蛇,因为到那时以色列人仍向铜蛇烧香。希西家叫铜蛇为铜块(注:或作“人称铜蛇为铜像”)。

    新约:
    《约翰福音》 3:14-15节
    摩西在旷野怎样举蛇,人子也必照样被举起来, 叫一切信他的都得永生(注:或作“叫一切信的人在他里面得永生”)。

    林前 9-13节“也不要试探主,像他们有人试探的,就被蛇所灭;你们也不要发怨言,像他们有发怨言的,就被灭命的所灭。他们遭遇这些事都要作为鉴戒,并且写在 经上,正是警戒我们这末世的人。所以,自己以为站得稳的,须要谨慎,免得跌倒。你们所遇见的试探,无非是人所能受的。上帝是信实的,必不叫你们受试探过于 所能受的。在受试探的时候,总要给你们开一条出路,叫你们能忍受得住。”


    所以,約翰福音3章14節,耶穌居然自稱是「摩西手里的銅蛇」 。原來耶穌不但不是神的獨生子,是蛇神的后代。

    2.耶稣教导世人冷酷无情

      有一次,一个门徒想回去埋葬自己的父亲,却被耶稣阻止(太8:21-22),很难想象这会是教导世人“要尊敬父母”的同一人所为。耶稣还多次教导世人要骨肉相争:

      弟兄要把弟兄,父亲要把儿子,送到死地。儿女要与父母为敌,害死他们。(太10:21)
       你们以为我来,是叫地上太平吗?我告诉你们,不是,乃是叫人分争。从今以后,一家五个人将要分争,三个人和两个人相争,两个人和三个人相争。父亲和儿子相争,儿子和父亲相争。母亲和女儿相争,女儿和母亲相争。婆婆和媳妇相争,媳妇和婆婆相争。(路12:51-53)

      让世人这般六亲不认、冷酷无情,很可能是基于世界末日很快就要到来的说教。

    2.耶稣并不宽容

      在路加10:10-14中,耶稣告诉门徒,如果有不接待他们传教的,就要诅咒他们在审判日比所多玛、推罗及西顿人的下场还要惨;在路加11:42-54中,耶稣又一连使用了六个“有祸了”来指责法利赛人及律法师,比如他说律法师的祖先杀害先知们的血债都要归到他们这代人身上。另外,他许多关于永刑地狱的说教也与他宽容、仁慈的形象不符。

    3.耶稣虐待动植物

      有一次,耶稣为了满足污鬼的请求,竟把污鬼赶进约2 000头猪的身体里,导致它们全部闯下山崖,投入大海而死(可5:12-13),令人触目惊心!又有一次,耶稣在早晨回城的时候饿了,在路旁正好看见一棵无花果树,但在树上没有找到果子(因为不到季节),于是诅咒那棵树,使它立刻干枯而死(太21:18-19)。

    4.耶稣歧视与偏见

      耶稣曾对门徒们说:“神国的奥秘,只叫你们知道,若是对外人讲,凡事就用比喻。叫他们看是看见,却不晓得。听是听见,却不明白。恐怕他们回转过来,就得赦免。”(可4:11-12)他竟会担心“外人”因获得真知而得赦免?!

      有个外邦的妇人苦苦恳求耶稣为其女儿解除被鬼附身之苦。耶稣先是不予理睬,说自己奉差遣只为照看以色列人迷失的羊。在那妇人再次哀求后,他却说:“不好拿儿女的饼,丢给狗吃。”于是那妇人就卑躬屈膝地自认为是桌下乞食的狗,请高贵的主人施舍一点从桌子上掉下来的碎渣儿,他这才软下心来为她女儿赶鬼(太15:22-27)。

      当然,各福音书的主要目的是为了树立耶稣伟大而高尚的救世主形象--他鼓励人们要爱人如爱已,要宽容和博爱,甚至让自己经受极端的苦难和屈辱来承担世人的罪孽,但福音书中类似上述的种种败笔则让我们认识到:耶稣光辉灿烂的美好形象,其实是由一些道德和智力都有缺憾的凡人构思、描绘出来的,从而就难免留下一些污点和阴暗面。

    歌罗西书
    3:18你们作妻子的、当顺服自己的丈夫、这在主裡面是相宜的。

    歌林多前书
    14:34妇女在会中要闭口不言、像在圣徒的众教会一样.因为不准他们说话.他们总要顺服、正如律法所说的。
    14:35他们若要学甚么、可以在家裡问自己的丈夫.因为妇女在会中说话原是可耻的。


    歌林多前书
    11:5凡女人祷告或是讲道、若不蒙着头、就羞辱自己的头.因为这就如同剃了头髮一样。
    11:6女人若不蒙着头、就该剪了头髮.女人若以剪髮剃髮为羞愧、就该蒙着头。


    提摩太前书
    2:11女人要沉静学道、一味的顺服。
    2:12我不许女人讲道、也不许他辖管男人、只要沉静。
    2:13因为先造的是亚当、后造的是夏娃。
    2:14且不是亚当被引诱、乃是女人被引诱、陷在罪裡。



    5 耶稣目的还是要统治,不服的杀!

    路加福音
    19:27不要我作他們的王的那些敵人,把他們帶來,在我面前殺掉吧!


    6 咒诅一颗无花果树死

    “早晨回城的时候,他饿了,看见路旁有一棵无花果树,就走到跟前;在树上找不着甚么,不过有叶子,就对树说:‘从今以后,你永不结果子!’那无花果树就立刻枯干了。”(太21:18-19)马可福音11章特别告诉我们,那不是收无花果树的时候,但耶稣居然因为肚子饿就咒诅一颗无花果树死!!


    圣经里的天体论
    上帝做在球上能看到下面的东西嘛?就是平面的



    以赛亚先知书 40 : 22 :「神坐在地球大圈之上」


    “大圈”不是大球 “circle of the earth”

    基督徒解释:

    神就坐在这球形的地球之上。



    原文:King James 1611权威版
    {40:21}Have ye not known? have ye not heard? hath it not been told you from the beginning? have ye not understood from the foundations of the earth?
    {40:22} [It is] he that sittethupon the circle of the earth, and the inhabitants thereof [are]
    as grasshoppers; that stretcheth out the heavens as a curtain,and spreadeth them out as a tent to dwell in:
    {40:23} That bringeth the princes to nothing; he maketh the judges of the earth as vanity.



    正确翻译:

    你不知道吗?你没听过吗?你始终都不明白吗?你还不懂地球的基本知识吗?他坐在地面的大圈上,所有生物看起来像蚱蜢,(大地)像窗帘那样拉长把天空延伸,像一个帐篷的房子。(平面的视角,旧约大约完成于公元前500年,此处的earth在当时是地面,地表的意思)



    解释:

    很明显上帝坐在平面上方,认为大地是圆圈(平面非球体,这里用circle不是ball),看到大地的延伸,看到地面的生物.如果是球体的话看的到这个景象吗?就是一人座高处看地面的视角。坐在球上,他能看到球下面的生物?很明显这里上帝对天,地的理解就是平行的长方形(用窗帘,房子比喻)但古希伯来文对圆球形是用chuwg。但原文是用raqiya,那是平面的圆形。这里如果要证明地球是球体话根本不会是这样比喻的,就是平面的视角,基督徒的翻译是牛头不对马嘴。















    上帝的地心说
    ************

    约书亚记
    10:12 当耶和华将亚摩利人交付以色列人的日子、约书亚就祷告耶和华、在以色列人眼前说、日头阿、你要停在基遍.月亮阿、你要止在亚雅崙谷。
    10:13 于是日头停留、月亮止住、直等国民向敌人报仇.这事岂不是写在雅煞珥书上麽.日头在天当中停住、不急速下落、约有一日之久。

    解释:大家都知道,日出日落并不是因为太阳在动,乃是因为地球在转动。可见当时写圣经的人因为身处「地心说」那个年代,才会以为太阳停住可以延长天黑的时间。




    上帝的天地有根基?
    *****************

    约伯记
    26:11 天的柱子因他的斥责震动惊奇。

    撒母耳记下
    22:8 那时因他发怒、地就摇撼战抖、天的根基也震动摇撼。
    22:16 耶和华的斥责一发、鼻孔的气一出、海底就出现、大地的根基也显露。




    上帝的地球是平的?
    *****************

    约伯记
    38:6 地的根基安置在何处.地的角石(corner stones)是谁安放的。

    以赛亚书
    11:12 他必向列国竖立大旗、招回以色列被赶散的人、又从地的四方(four corners)聚集分散的犹大人

    启示录
    7:1 此后我看见四位天使站在地的四角(corners)、执掌地上四方的风、叫风不吹在地上、海上、和树上。


    解释:从前支持地平说的人说角/方(corner)暗示了地球有角落,所以就认为地球有尽头,是平的

    马太福音
    4:8 魔鬼又带他上了一座最高的山,将世上的万国(all the kingdoms of the world)与万 国的荣华都指给他看

    解释:若果在一个地方能看到世上所有国,那地球一定是平的

    但以理书
    4:10 我在床上脑中的异象是这样.我看见地当中有一棵树、极其高大、
    4:11 那树渐长、而且坚固、高得顶天、从地极都能看见、

    解释:可见上帝以为地是平的,并且有尽头。


    基督教的道德标准早就落后于现代社会:

    西方多元化的趋势反对一神教:
    发达的西方国家美国,英国,加拿,大澳洲等国家的发达不可缺少各国的移民的智慧和勤劳的贡献,也鼓励优秀的移民不论国籍和宗教,提倡多元文化的发展,而不是一神教的发展。那些移民们因该感谢,西方人摒弃了基督教里一神教的独霸理念,才有了包容四海的心胸来发展自己。多元化文化也是世界发展的趋势,发达国家在法律上也不允许宗教的歧视。而《圣经》里的耶和华(上帝)是歧视其他一切宗教,都要消灭的(屠城)。

    圣经里上帝的杀戮:“耶和华将艾城(Ai)人民交给乔舒亚,杀死连男带女一万二千。(《乔舒亚记8章24节)”。等等.

    圣经里上帝的歧视“祭祀别神,不单单祭祀耶和华的,那人必要灭绝 ”。(《出埃及记》22章20节)”。等等
    http://truthbible.net/biblehorror/violentbible/



    西方社会主张对动物的保护,上帝从来没谈过

    两本《圣经》无论上帝还是他儿子,仁慈的造物主从来没对动物的生命有一丝怜悯。反之,现代西方人对动物的保护主义越拉越强,有保护滥杀和虐待动物的各类法规,屠宰场的杀动物也不许用残忍的手段。真正的体现了人与其他生灵的和谐比陈旧的圣经里的“爱”的含义更广泛。按圣经的原理动物也是上帝造的,为什么基督教教义里对动物从来没有“爱”过,就该杀了吃?佛教对杀任何生灵都是反对的,仅从这点上说,佛的仁慈比现代文明还早,比基督教更是仁慈多了。申13:16:“(对于异教徒),要把他们全部杀死,连他们城里的牲畜都要用刀杀尽。” 三光政策?


    西方现代社会讲男女平等:
    西方社会之所以更加文明的另一个主要标志是,男女平等。而中国的基督教徒们一直以基督教“平等,自由,仁爱”自豪,前面已经驳斥了上帝的杀戮异教,命都不保哪来自由?动物也不爱,还造物主的仁爱。《圣经》对女性的歧视,足见基督教教义里古人对女性的歧视。到如今都不提倡了,这《圣经》还是造物主圣书?先在基督徒可以和非基督徒结婚,圣经上是绝对不许的.

    圣经教你甚麽时候要杀自己全家
    申命记
    13:6你的同胞弟兄、或是你的儿女、或是你怀中的妻、或是如同你性命的朋友、若暗中引诱你、说、我们不如去事奉你和你列祖素来所不认识的别神、
    13:7是你四围列国的神、无论是离你近、离你远、从地这边到地那边的神、
    13:8你不可依从他、也不可听从他、眼不可顾惜他、你不可怜恤他、也不可遮庇他、
    13:9总要杀他、你先下手、然后众民也下手、将他治死。
    13:10要用石头打死他、因为他想要勾引你离开那领你出埃及地为奴之家的耶和华你的神。




    圣经性别歧视:男女不平等[/U

    以弗所书
    5:22你们作妻子的、当顺服自己的丈夫、如同顺服主.
    5:23因为丈夫是妻子的头、如同基督是教会的头.他又是教会全体的救主。



    歌林多前书
    14:34妇女在会中要闭口不言、像在圣徒的众教会一样.因为不准他们说话.他们总要顺服、正如律法所说的。
    14:35他们若要学甚么、可以在家裡问自己的丈夫.因为妇女在会中说话原是可耻的。


    歌林多前书
    11:5凡女人祷告或是讲道、若不蒙着头、就羞辱自己的头.因为这就如同剃了头髮一样。



    提摩太前书
    2:11女人要沉静学道、一味的顺服。


    士师记
    21:21若看见示罗的女子出来跳舞、就从葡萄园出来、在示罗的女子中各抢一个为妻.回便雅悯地去。


    民数记
    31:17所以你们要把一切的男孩、和所有已嫁的女子、都杀了。
    31:18但女孩子中、凡没有出嫁的、你们都可以存留他的活命。


    总结,基督教的传道者以西方国家多数人是信基督教的,基督教文化是西方人的道德标准来欺骗信徒,最终也只能欺骗些不明真相,不接触新信息的闭塞人群和低文化人群。如今国人学宗教需要自己先具体了解它的历史和教义原文,方法和渠道很多,不要盲目,更不要极端。好的宗教从来没有极端的一面,好的宗教的理论世世代代都适用。基督教的圣经道德已经落后,更不能做为法律,新教自己就推翻了它的政权.

    基督教不同时代不同的脸:


    天主教时代:十字军东征是中世纪欧洲基督教徒发动的试图征服伊斯兰世界的一场宗教、侵略与掠夺战争。基督徒搪塞是法律时代,可笑基督法律被新教自己推翻,开始被革除了政治地位。不是法律是阶级斗争的暴力.


    新教时代:基督教国家在殖民时期用枪炮打开别国国门进行资本积累,把基督教强行预加于被殖民国和牧师们狼狈为奸迫害当地民众。基督徒的道德有所提高,但不信基督的国家还是可以灭的,对美国印第安人等国的屠杀就是旧约暴力的再现。


    当代中国基督教: 不乏整天骂其他宗教,来抬高自己地位的小人,根本远离西方基督教徒的标准,中国基督教徒宗派里有不少是很极端的基督徒:不仅不意识到《圣经》上对不信者迫害是落后的没人性的,而且还会认为是“义举”,拿可以屠城的行为“解释”说杀的都是恶人。更有不少信徒就赤裸裸的赞同《圣经》理的暴政,比如基督徒NJR说“上帝是法制的鼻祖,上帝律法令顺之者昌,逆之者亡.人人都是自作自受,自食其果.”


    当代的西方基督教: 西方发达国家立法是要保护多元文化,不只是基督教,更不许基督教杀害,迫害与歧视其他宗教。如今发达国家不拿基督教为法律,基督教徒不得迫害和歧视其他宗教。人们包括基督徒以任何理由的杀人为耻,刑法里极刑都很少判。基督教如今在西方发达国家大多基督徒的道德标准事实早已经高于耶稣和圣经:尊重其他宗教,不分宗教歧视对全社会做慈善事业,不分宗教可以结婚,爱护动物,不歧视妇女等等,跟不允许迫害。这些行为准则已经高于圣经新旧约里的标准。所以说基督教在新教改革后,到了如今事实上,基督教的教义已经又一次落后于现代文明的标准。
     
  10. Happy Angel

    Happy Angel 新手上路 ID:94351

    注册:
    2010-08-17
    帖子:
    1,001
    支持:
    19
    声望:
    48
    金钱:
    $15,654
    上帝除去罪恶,是公义的体现。
     
  11. qwerty0

    qwerty0 阿Q先生 ID:106531 VIP

    注册:
    2012-03-04
    帖子:
    912
    支持:
    67
    声望:
    88
    金钱:
    $14,531
    一个中国历史教材中忽略的小插曲:12世纪的文艺复兴

    对此的历史背景、起因、对后世的影响,俺没有做过多的考证。简单列举一些“事实”在此,仅仅希望“从感性”上增加对中世纪欧洲的了解:

    1、欧洲人在许多的机缘下,掌握了翻译古希腊和伊斯兰哲学及科学著作的机会,特别是修道院和大学对翻译工作起到了较大作用。到了13世纪初,几乎所有的重要古代著作都已经翻译成拉丁文,从此知识迅速地从大学和修道院流传开来

    2、出现了一些著名的经院哲学家,如格罗斯特(Robert Grosseteste)、罗吉尔·培根、大阿尔伯特、邓斯·司各脱(Duns Scotus),其中格罗斯特和培根是现代科学方法的先驱,格罗斯特强调用数学了解自然现象,而培根在他的《大著作》(Opus Majus)提倡实验的经验方法。阿Q以为,哲学上的开路,是现代科学萌芽和发展的先提条件

    3、现代大学的萌芽。Edward Grant:medieval university laid far greater emphasis on science than does its modern counterpart and descendent

    4、科学和技术:#82和#83提到了一点,技术上,眼镜、风车、天文望远镜、造纸厂、阿拉伯数字的引入等,都为几百年后的科学革命在奠基
     
  12. qwerty0

    qwerty0 阿Q先生 ID:106531 VIP

    注册:
    2012-03-04
    帖子:
    912
    支持:
    67
    声望:
    88
    金钱:
    $14,531
    中世纪欧洲的科学家, 下面列举几个,同时忽略一些在西班牙的穆斯林的伟大科学家。因为当时西班牙与欧洲是隔开的

    特拉勒斯的安提莫斯: 约474年-558年,建筑师和数学家,他解构了椭圆弦线,写了一本关于圆锥曲线的著作。他又在他的著作里编纂了一个关于医疗设备镜子构造的研究

    John Philoponus (490 – 570) : launched a revolution in the understanding of physics by critiquing and correcting the earlier works of Aristotle. In the process he proposed important concepts such as a rudimentary notion of inertia and the invariant acceleration of falling objects

    Paul of Aegina or Paulus Aegineta (Aegina, 625?–690?) : developed many novel surgical techniques and authored the medical encyclopedia Medical Compendium in Seven Books.

    罗伯特·格罗斯泰斯特(约1175年-1253年10月9日):英国政治家、经院哲学家、神学家和伦敦大主教。A.C.克龙比称他为“牛津科学思考的传统的真正创始人,并且在某种程度上,更是英国理智的传统的创始人。”

    Jordanus de Nemore was a thirteenth-century European mathematician
    wrote treatises on at least 6 different important mathematical subjects: the science of weights; “algorismi” treatises on practical arithmetic; pure arithmetic; algebra; geometry; and stereographic projection

    让·布里丹(Jean Buridan,拉丁文写法为Joannes Buridanus) (1292 - 1363): was a French priest who sowed the seeds of the Copernican revolution in Europe. He developed the concept of impetus, the first step toward the modern concept of inertia (惯性定理)。 在牛津大学墨顿学院的思想家赫特斯柏立的威廉最先表述出平均速率定理:在同样时间间隔内,假若等速度物体的速度是等加速度物体的最初速度和最终速度的总和的一半,则此二物体移动的距离相等。这定理是自由落体定律的基础。早在伽利略·伽利莱之前,他们就已做实验证实了这定理

    尼克尔·奥里斯姆(Nicole Oresme ?-1382年7月11日): 是中古晚期最知名、最具影响力哲学家之一。本身为经济学家、数学家、物理学家、天文学家、哲学家、心理学家、音乐学家、神学家、里修主教、称职译者、法王查理五世顾问,亦为近代科学主要奠基者之一。可能为14世纪最原创性思想家之一. 奥里斯姆用几何方法证明了平均速率定理。奥里斯姆于1377年发表的著作《天地通论》提出,当自由落体在加速时,其重量并没有增加,而是冲力增加。假设,挖掘一条直线隧道,从地球表面的A点,穿过地心,挖掘到地球表面的B点,然后将一个重物落入这隧道,则它会从A点,经过地心,移动到B点,就好像单摆从一边摇摆到另外一边。但是,从地心到B点的路途中,它是呈升起状态,而重量只能造成物体掉落,因此冲力与重量不同
     
  13. qwerty0

    qwerty0 阿Q先生 ID:106531 VIP

    注册:
    2012-03-04
    帖子:
    912
    支持:
    67
    声望:
    88
    金钱:
    $14,531
    再换另一个角度看问题:List of Roman Catholic cleric–scientists(罗马天主教神职人员中的重要科学家),太多了,仅摘录部分20世纪以前的:

    Albert of Saxony (philosopher) (c. 1320–1390) – German bishop known for his contributions to logic and physics; with Buridan he helped develop the theory that was a precursor to the modern theory of inertia

    Albertus Magnus (c. 1206–1280) – Dominican friar and Bishop of Regensberg who has been described as "one of the most famous precursors of modern science in the High Middle Ages."Patron saint of natural sciences; Works in physics, logic, metaphysics, biology, and psychology.

    Giulio Alenio (艾儒略)(1582-1649) - Jesuit theologian, astronomer and mathematician. He was sent to the Far East as a missionary and adopted a Chinese name and customs. He wrote 25 books including a cosmography and a Life of Jesus in Chinese.

    José María Algué (1856–1930) – Priest and meteorologist who invented the barocyclonometer ( 气压风暴表)

    Giovanni Antonelli (1818–1872) – Priest and director of the Ximenian Observatory of Florence who also collaborated on the design of a prototype of the internal combustion engine

    Eugenio Barsanti (1821–1864) – Piarist who is the possible inventor of the internal combustion engine

    Daniello Bartoli (1608–1685) – Bartoli and fellow Jesuit astronomer Niccolò Zucchi are credited as probably having been the first to see the equatorial belts on the planet Jupiter

    Jacques de Billy (1602–1679) – Jesuit who has produced a number of results in number theory which have been named after him; published several astronomical tables; The crater Billy on the Moon is named after him.

    Anselmus de Boodt (1550–1632) – Canon who was one of the founders of mineralogy

    Theodoric Borgognoni (1205–1298) – Domincan friar, Bishop of Cervia, and medieval Surgeon who made important contributions to antiseptic practice and anaesthetics

    Roger Joseph Boscovich (1711–1787) – Jesuit polymath known for his contributions to modern atomic theory and astronomy

    Thomas Bradwardine (c. 1290–1349) – Archbishop of Canturbury and mathematician who helped develop the mean speed theorem; one of the Oxford Calculators

    Jan Brożek (1585–1652) – Polish canon, polymath, mathematician, astronomer, and physician; the most prominent Polish mathematician of the 17th century

    Louis-Ovide Brunet (1826–1876) – Priest who was one of the founding fathers of Canadian botany

    Jean Buridan (c. 1300 – after 1358) – Priest who formulated early ideas of momentum and inertial motion and sowed the seeds of the Copernican revolution in Europe

    Jean Baptiste Carnoy (1836–1899) – Priest who has been called the founder of the science of cytology (细胞学?)

    Giovanni di Casali (died c. 1375) – Franciscan friar who provided a graphical analysis of the motion of accelerated bodies

    Bonaventura Cavalieri (1598–1647) – Jesuate known for his work on the problems of optics and motion, work on the precursors of infinitesimal calculus, and the introduction of logarithms to Italy. Cavalieri's principle in geometry partially anticipated integral calculus;

    Christopher Clavius (1538–1612) – Respected Jesuit Astronomer and mathematician who headed the commission that yielded the Gregorian calendar; wrote influential astronomical textbook.

    Nicolaus Copernicus (1473–1543) –Renaissance astronomer and canon famous for his heliocentric cosmology that set in motion the Copernican Revolution

    Albert Curtz (1600–1671) – Jesuit astronomer who expanded on the works of Tycho Brahe and contributed to early understanding of the moon; The crater Curtius on the Moon is named after him.

    Armand David 阿尔芒·戴维德 (1826–1900) – Lazarist priest, zoologist, and botanist who did important work in these fields in China

    Václav Prokop Diviš (1698–1765) – Czech priest who studied the lightning rod independent of Franklin and constructed the first electrified musical instrument in history

    Johann Dzierzon (1811–1906) – Priest and pioneering apiarist who discovered the phenomenon of parthenogenesis among bees, and designed the first successful movable-frame beehive; has been described as the "father of modern apiculture (蜜蜂养殖)"

    Jean-Charles de la Faille (1597–1652) – Jesuit mathematician who determined the center of gravity of the sector of a circle for the first time

    Gabriele Falloppio (1523–1562) – Canon and one of the most important anatomists and physicians of the sixteenth century. The Fallopian tubes, which extend from the uterus to the ovaries, are named for him.

    Placidus Fixlmillner (1721–1791) – Benedictine priest and one of the first astronomers to compute the orbit of Uranus

    Pierre Gassendi (1592–1655) – French priest, astronomer, and mathematician who published the first data on the transit of Mercury; best known intellectual project attempted to reconcile Epicurean atomism with Christianity

    Johannes von Gmunden (c. 1380–1442) – Canon, mathematician, and astronomer who compiled astronomical tables; Asteroid 15955 Johannesgmunden named in his honor

    Andrew Gordon (Benedictine) (1712–1751) – Benedictine monk, physicist, and inventor who made the first electric motor

    Christoph Grienberger (1561–1636) – Jesuit astronomer after whom the crater Gruemberger on the Moon is named; verified Galileo's discovery of Jupiter's moons.

    Francesco Maria Grimaldi (1618–1663) – Jesuit who discovered the diffraction of light (indeed coined the term "diffraction"), investigated the free fall of objects, and built and used instruments to measure geological features on the moon

    Robert Grosseteste (c. 1175 – 1253) – Bishop who was one of the most knowledgeable men of the Middle Ages; has been called "the first man ever to write down a complete set of steps for performing a scientific experiment."

    Paul Guldin (1577–1643) – Jesuit mathematician and astronomer who discovered the Guldinus theorem to determine the surface and the volume of a solid of revolution

    René Just Haüy (1743–1822) – Priest known as the father of crystallography(晶体学)

    Athanasius Kircher (1602–1680) – Jesuit who has been called the father of Egyptology (埃及学) and "Master of a hundred arts"; wrote an encyclopedia of China; one of the first people to observe microbes through a microscope

    Wenceslas Pantaleon Kirwitzer (1588–1626) – Jesuit astronomer and missionary who published observations of comets

    Georges Lemaître (1894–1966) – Priest and father of the Big Bang Theory

    Jean Mabillon (1632–1707) – Benedictine monk and scholar, considered the founder of palaeography (古文字学) and diplomatics (档案学?)

    Charles Malapert (1581–1630) – Jesuit writer, astronomer, and proponent of Aristotelian cosmology; also known for observations of sunpots and of the lunar surface. He used observations of comets and stars of the southern sky to attack the hypotheses of Copernicus and Galileo.

    Nicolas Malebranche (1638–1715) – Oratorian philosopher who studied physics, optics, and the laws of motion and disseminated the ideas of Descartes and Leibniz

    Edme Mariotte (c. 1620–1684) – Priest and physicist who recognized Boyle's Law and wrote about the nature of color

    Francesco Maurolico (1494–1575) – Benedictine who made contributions to the fields of geometry, optics, conics, mechanics, music, and astronomy, and gave the first known proof by mathematical induction

    Christian Mayer (astronomer) (1719–1783) – Jesuit astronomer most noted for pioneering the study of binary stars

    Gregor Mendel 孟德尔 (1822–1884) – Augustinian monk and father of genetics (遗传学)

    Marin Mersenne (1588–1648) – Minim philosopher, mathematician, and music theorist who is often referred to as the "father of acoustics (声学)"

    Paul of Middelburg (1446–1534) – Bishop of Fossombrone who wrote important works on the reform of the calendar

    Maciej Miechowita (1457–1523) – Canon who wrote the first accurate geographical and ethnographical description of Eastern Europe, as well as two medical treatises

    Théodore Moret (1602–1667) – Jesuit mathematician and author of the first mathematical dissertations ever defended in Prague; the lunar crater Moretus is named after him.

    Landell de Moura (1861–1928) – Priest and inventor who was the first to accomplish the transmission of the human voice by a wireless machine

    Gabriel Mouton (1618–1694) – Abbot, mathematician, astronomer, and early proponent of the metric system

    Jozef Murgaš (1864–1929) – Priest who contributed to wireless telegraphy and help develop mobile communications and wireless transmission of information and human voice

    Nicholas of Cusa (1401–1464) – Cardinal, philosopher, jurist, mathematician, astronomer, and one of the great geniuses and polymaths of the 15th century

    Jean-Antoine Nollet (1700–1770) – Abbot and physicist who discovered the phenomenon of osmosis in natural membranes.

    William of Ockham (c. 1288 – c. 1348) – Franciscan Scholastic who wrote significant works on logic, physics, and theology; known for Ockham's Razor

    Nicole Oresme (c. 1323–1382) – One of the most famous and influential philosophers of the later Middle Ages; economist, mathematician, physicist, astronomer, philosopher, theologian and Bishop of Lisieux, and competent translator; one of the most original thinkers of the 14th century

    Barnaba Oriani (1752–1832) – Barnabite geodesist, astronomer and scientist whose greatest achievement was his detailed research of the planet Uranus, and is also known for Oriani's theorem

    Luca Pacioli (c. 1446–1517) – Franciscan friar who published several works on mathematics and is often regarded as the Father of Accounting

    Ignace-Gaston Pardies (1636–1673) – Jesuit physicist known for his correspondence with Newton and Descartes

    John Peckham (1230–1292) – Archbishop of Canterbury and early practitioner of experimental science

    Nicolas Claude Fabri de Peiresc (1580–1637) – Abbot and astromer who discovered the Orion Nebula(猎户座大星云); lunar crater Peirescius named in his honor

    Giuseppe Piazzi (1746–1826) – Theatine mathematician and astronomer who discovered Ceres(谷神星), today known as the largest member of the asteroid belt; also did important work cataloguing stars

    Jean Picard (1620–1682) – Priest and first person to measure the size of the Earth to a reasonable degree of accuracy; also developed what became the standard method for measuring the right ascension of a celestial object; The PICARD mission, an orbiting solar observatory, is named in his honor

    Charles Plumier (1646–1704) – Minim friar who is considered one of the most important botanical explorers of his time

    Louis Receveur (1757–1788) – Franciscan naturalist and astronomer; described as being as close as one could get to being an ecologist in the 18th century

    Franz Reinzer (1661–1708) – Jesuit who wrote an in-depth meteorological, astrological, and political compendium covering topics such as comets, meteors, lightning, winds, fossils, metals, bodies of water, and subterranean treasures and secrets of the earth

    Matteo Ricci 利玛窦 (1552–1610) – One of the founding fathers of the Jesuit China Mission and co-author of the first European-Chinese dictionary

    Giovanni Battista Riccioli (1598–1671) – Jesuit astronomer who authored Almagestum novum, an influential encyclopedia of astronomy; The first person to measure the rate of acceleration of a freely falling body; created a selenograph with Father Grimaldi that now adorns the entrance at the National Air and Space Museum in Washington D.C.

    Richard of Wallingford (1292-1336) - Abbot, renowned clockmaker, and one of the initiators of western trigonometry (三角学)

    Johannes de Sacrobosco (c. 1195 – c. 1256) – Irish monk and astronomer who wrote the authoritative medieval astronomy text Tractatus de Sphaera; his Algorismus was the first text to introduce Hindu-Arabic numerals and procedures into the European university curriculum; the lunar crater Sacrobosco is named after him

    Gregoire de Saint-Vincent (1584–1667) – Jesuit mathematician who made important contributions to the study of the hyperbola (双曲线)

    Alphonse Antonio de Sarasa (1618–1667) – Jesuit mathematician who contributed to the understanding of logarithms

    Christoph Scheiner (c. 1573–1650) – Jesuit physicist, astronomer, and inventor of the pantograph (伸缩绘图器); wrote on a wide range of scientific subjects

    Gaspar Schott (1608–1666) – Jesuit physicist, astronomer, and natural philosopher who is most widely known for his works on hydraulic and mechanical instruments

    Berthold Schwarz (c. 14th century) – Franciscan friar and reputed inventor of gunpowder and firearms

    Anton Maria Schyrleus of Rheita (1604–1660) – Capuchin astronomer and optrician who built Kepler's telescope

    Angelo Secchi (1818–1878) – Jesuit pioneer in astronomical spectroscopy, and one of the first scientists to state authoritatively that the sun is a star

    Lazzaro Spallanzani (1729–1799) – Priest, biologist, and physiologist who made important contributions to the experimental study of bodily functions, animal reproduction, and essentially discovered echolocation; his research of biogenesis paved the way for the investigations of Louis Pasteur

    Valentin Stansel (1621–1705) – Jesuit astronomer who made important observations of comets

    Nicolas Steno (1638–1686) – Bishop beatified by Pope John Paul II who is often called the father of geology and stratigraphy (地理学和地层学), and is known for Steno's principles

    Pope Sylvester II (c. 946–1003) – Prolific scholar who endorsed and promoted Arabic knowledge of arithmetic, mathematics, and astronomy in Europe, reintroducing the abacus and armillary sphere which had been lost to Europe since the end of the Greco-Roman era

    Alexius Sylvius Polonus (1593 – c. 1653) – Jesuit astronomer who studied sunspots and published a work on calendariography

    Ignacije Szentmartony (1718–1793) – Jesuit cartographer, mathematician, and astronomer who became a member of the expedition that worked on the rearrangement of the frontiers among colonies in South America

    André Tacquet (1612–1660) – Jesuit mathematician whose work laid the groundwork for the eventual discovery of calculus

    Pierre Teilhard de Chardin (1881–1955) – Jesuit paleontologist and geologist who took part in the discovery of Peking Man

    Francesco Lana de Terzi (c. 1631–1687) – Jesuit referred to as the Father of Aviation for his pioneering efforts; he also developed a blind writing alphabet prior to Braille. (turning the aeronautics field into a science by establishing "a theory of aerial navigation verified by mathematical accuracy")

    Theodoric of Freiberg (c. 1250 – c. 1310) – Dominican theologian and physicist who gave the first correct geometrical analysis of the rainbow

    Giuseppe Toaldo (1719–1797) – Priest and physicist who studied atmospheric electricity and did important work with lightning rods; the asteroid 23685 Toaldo is named for him.

    Basil Valentine (c. 15th century) – Benedictine alchemist whom author James J. Walsh calls the father of modern chemistry (一家之言,不过:Whatever his identity, Basil Valentine was undoubtedly a great chemist)

    Luca Valerio (1552–1618) – Jesuit mathematician who developed ways to find volumes and centers of gravity of solid bodies

    Ferdinand Verbiest 南怀仁 (1623–1688) – Jesuit astronomer and mathematician; designed what some claim to be the first ever self-propelled vehicle – many claim this as the world's first automobile

    Francesco de Vico (1805–1848) – Jesuit astronomer who discovered or co-discovered a number of comets; also made observations of Saturn and the gaps in its rings; the lunar crater De Vico and the asteroid 20103 de Vico are named after him

    Vincent of Beauvais (c.1190–c.1264) – Dominican who wrote the most influential encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

    Benito Viñes (1870- 1893), A Jesuit priest who was known as “Father Hurricane” Beginning his significant and important research on hurricanes.

    Godefroy Wendelin (1580–1667) – Priest and astronomer who recognized that Kepler's third law applied to the satellites of Jupiter; the lunar crate Vendelinus is named in his honor

    Witelo (c. 1230 – after 1280, before 1314) – Friar, physicist, natural philosopher, and mathematician; lunar crater Vitello named in his honor; his Perspectiva powerfully influenced later scientists, in particular Johannes Kepler

    Francesco Zantedeschi (1797–1873) – Priest who was among the first to recognize the marked absorption by the atmosphere of red, yellow, and green light; published papers on the production of electric currents in closed circuits by the approach and withdrawal of a magnet, thereby anticipating Michael Faraday's classical experiments of 1831

    Niccolò Zucchi (1586–1670) – Jesuit who invented the reflecting telescope and may have been the first to see the belts on the planet Jupiter

    Giovanni Battista Zupi (c. 1590–1650) – Jesuit astronomer, mathematician, and first person to discover that the planet Mercury had orbital phases; the crater Zupus on the Moon is named after him
     
  14. qwerty0

    qwerty0 阿Q先生 ID:106531 VIP

    注册:
    2012-03-04
    帖子:
    912
    支持:
    67
    声望:
    88
    金钱:
    $14,531
    http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-cn/安托万-洛朗·德·拉瓦锡

    在查找楼上资料时,偶然看到了公认的现代化学之父拉瓦锡:由于拉瓦锡当任税务官职务,最终不幸在法国大革命中被斩首

    法国大革命不就是代表了.....,怎么大伙儿不据此指责“摆脱了神权的束缚”、代表了自由主义的法国大革命,残酷迫害科学?
     
  15. CHRIS88

    CHRIS88 基督门徒 ID:68059 管理成员 VIP

    注册:
    2006-05-10
    帖子:
    10,227
    支持:
    873
    声望:
    293
    金钱:
    $86

分享此页面

扫描下面的二维码分享到微信!
http://news.comefromchina.com/threads/1167296/page-6