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本帖由 青草地2009-10-13 发布。版面名称:基督教会

  1. 青草地

    青草地 本站元老 ID:20728 VIP

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    [​IMG]


    [FONT=宋体]经常和我上面贴出的那幅Andrei Rublev的“圣三位一体”([/FONT]The Old Testament Trinity[FONT=宋体])相提并论的是这幅[/FONT]The holy Trinity. [FONT=宋体]这幅画同样是文艺复兴时期的作品,意大利画家[/FONT]Masaccio[FONT=宋体]所作,但笔法、构思完全不同,艺术追求和艺术效果也迥然各异。[/FONT]

    [FONT=宋体]谈到“三位一体”这个概念,感觉需要作一点简单的说明。[/FONT]

    [FONT=宋体]在基督教里,圣父[/FONT]—[FONT=宋体]上帝,圣子[/FONT]---[FONT=宋体]耶稣,圣灵三者合而为一构成的一个完整的精神力量,就是我们说的“神”或“天主”,在基督教信仰中这三者缺一不可(马太福音[/FONT]28:19[FONT=宋体]:所以你们要去、使万民作我的门徒、奉[/FONT]“[FONT=宋体]父[/FONT]”[FONT=宋体]、[/FONT]“[FONT=宋体]子[/FONT]”[FONT=宋体]、[/FONT]“[FONT=宋体]圣灵[/FONT]”[FONT=宋体]的名、给他们施洗。)由于这三个位格的同时存在,每个位格又区别于另外两个位格,但同时又具有相同的属性和本质,[/FONT][FONT=宋体]非常抽象,[/FONT][FONT=宋体]完全不同于人类传统的思维习惯,的确很难理解。在神学的探讨中也就出现了千奇百怪的解释和争议。初信之人花上三年五年甚至十年八年去理解,也不能完全参透,都是相当正常的。[/FONT][FONT=宋体]于是古代的艺术家通过绘画来表达自己对三位一体的理解,产生出不同的艺术画面和艺术效果也十分正常。[/FONT]

    Masaccion[FONT=宋体]的这幅作品,选用了圣经中耶稣受难的场面,圣父上帝在圣子背后显现,圣灵是隐藏的,存在于圣父圣子同在的整个空间,通过整体的视觉效果显示上帝力量的强大,预示耶稣必将复活。画面使用了透视法,明暗效果显著,笔法杰出,景物和人物立体感明显,好像发生在眼前。[/FONT]

    [FONT=宋体]相比来说,上个帖子[/FONT]Andrei Rublev[FONT=宋体]的那幅圣三位一体就没有立体感,绘画中透视、解刨、比例的运用就比较省略。修士[/FONT]Andrei[FONT=宋体]侧重了三位一体的精神美感,那幅画的视角和构思却突破了圣经故事的局限。[/FONT]

    Holy Trinity (Masaccio)
    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    Artist Masaccio Year 1427 Type fresco Dimensions 667 cm × 317 cm (263 in × 125 in) Location Santa Maria Novella, Florence The Holy Trinity, with the Virgin and Saint John and donors (Italian: Santa Trinità) is a famous fresco by the Early Italian Renaissance painter Masaccio. It is located in the church of Santa Maria Novella, in Florence.
    This is the most celebrated work of Masaccio beside the frescoes in the Brancacci Chapel. Opinions vary as to exactly when this fresco was painted between 1425 and 1428. It was rediscovered in its entirety in 1861, after being hidden in the sixteenth century by a Vasari altarpiece and a stone altar.
    The work was taken up by nineteenth-century critics as a revelation of Brunelleschi's principles in architecture and the use of perspective, to the point that some believed Brunelleschi to have had a direct hand in the design of the work. When it was executed, no actual coffered barrel vault had yet been constructed since the Romans.[1]
    The Trinity is noteworthy for its inspiration taken from ancient Roman triumphal arches and the strict adherence to the recent perspective discoveries, with a vanishing point at the viewer's eye level, so that, as Vasari describes it[2] "a barrel vault drawn in perspective, and divided into squares with rosettes which diminish and are foreshortened so well that there seems to be a hole in the wall." This artistic technique is called trompe l'oeil which means, "deceives the eye," in French. The fresco had a transforming effect on generations of Florentine painters and visiting artists. The sole figure without a fully-realized three-dimensional occupation of space is the majestic God supporting the Cross, considered an immeasurable being. The figures of the two patrons[3] represent another important novelty, occupying the viewer's own space, in front of the picture plane, which is represented by the Ionic columns and the Corinthian pilasters from which the feigned vault appears to spring; they are depicted in the traditional prayerful pose of donor portraits, but in natural size and with a noteworthy attention for realism and volume.
    The most likely interpretation of the Trinity is that the painting links the traditional medieval connection of the chapel with Golgotha the "place of the skull" where Christ died, with the patrons' or Adam's tomb in the lower part and the Crucifixion in the upper part. But it can also assume the significance of the journey the human spirit must undertake to reach salvation, rising from the earthly life and corruptible body through prayer (the two petitioners and patrons) and the intercession of the Virgin and Saint John the Evangelist to the Trinity.
    A close-up view of the skeleton in the sarcophagus also reveals the promise: I WAS WHAT YOU ARE AND WHAT I AM YOU SHALL BE.
     
  2. 青草地

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    在西方艺术史上,宗教和艺术一直是相辅相承的。艺术通过宗教来表达、来进步,宗教更是借着艺术而形象化、平民化。

    前面已经贴过文艺复兴时期三大艺术巨人中达芬奇的“最后的晚餐”和米开朗基罗雕刻的“大卫像”。今天贴一下另一位艺术天才拉斐尔的画。他的“圣母”系列有若干幅,这幅应该是最有名的“西斯庭圣母”。图底那两个仰望的小天使被印制在各种明信片上,为成千上万的人所熟悉。下面Wiki英文版的介绍比中文详细,谈到此画在战乱中被保存的故事。

    古代西方政教合一,能够支持艺术成长的首先是富有的教会,使西方绘画史上存留了数不胜数的出色的宗教绘画、雕塑和建筑。圣母玛丽亚在天主教中是被提高到神圣的地位的,圣母怀抱圣子的艺术作品于是随处可见,产生了很多西方艺术品中不可忽略的杰作。

    拉斐尔这幅作品据说现在在德国斯顿艺术馆里是被单独放置在一间房子里的,画面上的人像与真人等大,另进入房间观赏的人寂然无语,好像让人类真实地感受到了来自天国的气息。这幅画可以看到拉斐尔作品的和谐、圆融、神圣、高贵的气息,画面充满和平和爱意,但圣母和圣子的表情却有些忧郁,预示圣子耶稣虽然刚刚诞生,却必将通过走向十字架的牺牲来拯救苦难深重的人类。

    ZT:

    西斯庭圣母 维基百科,自由的百科全书


    《西斯庭圣母》 [​IMG]

    现藏于 德累斯顿艺术博物馆, 德累斯顿西斯廷圣母》(Sistine Madonna),亦称《希斯汀圣母》,为意大利画家拉斐尔圣母像中的代表作,装饰于为纪念教宗西克斯特二世而重建的西斯廷礼拜堂,最初它被放在教堂神龛上,至1574年为止,一直保存在西斯廷礼拜堂,故得此名。现为德国德累斯顿艺术博物馆收藏。

    意境


    画中表现圣母抱着圣子从云端降下,两边帷幕旁画有一男一女,身穿金色锦袍的教宗西克斯特向圣母、圣子做出欢迎的姿态。而稍作跪状的圣母信徒渥娃拉,她虔心垂目,侧脸低头,微露羞怯,表示了对圣母、圣子的崇敬和恭顺。位于中心的圣母体态丰满优美,面部表情端庄安详,秀丽文静,在更高的起点上塑造了一位人类的救世主形象。扒在下方的两个小天使睁著大眼仰望圣母的降临,稚气童心跃然画上。


    [media]http://artcess.files.wordpress.com/2008/07/sistine-madonna.jpg[/media]
    Sistine Madonna

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    The Sistine Madonna is a painting by the Italian High Renaissance artist Raphael, circa 1512–1514. It is housed in the Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister (old masters) of Dresden, Germany.
    The canvas with the Virgin, Child and Saints Sixtus and Barbara, usually called the Sistine Madonna, is characterized by an imaginary space created by the figures themselves. The figures stand on a bed of clouds, framed by heavy curtains which open to either side. The Virgin actually appears to descend from a heavenly space, through the picture plane, out into the real space in which the painting is hung. This is seen by the active focal point in Madonna's knee. The gesture of St. Sixtus and the glance of St. Barbara seem to be directed toward the faithful, whom we imagine beyond the balustrade at the bottom of the painting. The Papal tiara, which rests on top of this balustrade, act as a bridge between the real and pictorial space.
    The painting was probably intended to decorate the tomb of Pope Julius II. It was for some time located in the convent of St Sixtus in Piacenza and was later donated by the monks to Augustus III of Saxony.
    The two putti at the foot of the painting and the figure of St. Barbara have often been reproduced in popular culture, such as Christmas cards.


    [edit] WWII

    Hitler had the painting locked in the museum's vault, which meant the painting survived the allied bombings. It was carried to Moscow after the Second World War where Stalin vaulted it. After the death of Stalin, Vasily Grossman writes of viewing the painting in Moscow. It was later returned to Dresden in the 1950s.
    Sistine Madonna was saved by Russian Marshal, great military commander - Ivan Stepanovich Konev. Ivan Konev on Wiki. Behind story, Konev has found reproduction of Sistine Madonna on the dead body of a red army soldier, after a battle and hi fall in love with this greatest art masterpiece. Later, when British air forces destroys most of Dresden (by secret directive of destroying 4 bridges, in order to stop USSR army from moving towards Berlin), Sistine Madonna and lots of greatest art works were hide. After Ivan Konev give freedom to Dresden, by destroying all German forces, he gain directive to find hidden art and hi does it with his soldiers. He has found Sistine Madonna, he can't believe it was not a dream. Later Sistine Madonna was reconstructed and returned to homeland. Later, Ivan Konev wrote a letter to wife of the fallen soldier, with Sistine Madonna reproduction. Ivan Konev lovely wife, looks like Sistine Madonna. Later Ivan Konev, have look at Sistine Madonna in "her" homeland, Ivan Konev was crying.


    ZT:

    http://www.zhshw.com/news/minhua/071228995333339HAFGJA1G3A3A4F5.htm

    作品简介
    早期的圣母偏重于平民气息,自从来到罗马后,他的圣母像也开始发生气质的变 化,人间的母性转变为女王式的圣母了。这一幅《西斯庭圣母》却兼具两种秉赋,她 既象一位善良的民间女性,又具有女王式的严肃性。圣母抱着圣子降落人间是为了献 出自己的儿子。西斯庭圣母所具有的文雅、温柔与美貌,致使一位俄国画家感慨地赞 美道:“拉斐尔画的圣母,本身就是对人类的想象力的创造。”这一庄严而典雅的圣 母形象,可以说是画家所有圣母像中集大成者,是他最成功的一幅圣母像。 《西斯庭圣母》完成于1514年,是拉斐尔最成功的一幅圣母像。这幅祭坛画,指 定装饰在为纪念教皇西克斯特二世而重建的西斯庭教堂内的礼拜堂里的。最初它被放 在教堂的神龛上,至1574年,一直保存在西斯庭教堂里,故得此名。现为德国德累斯 顿博物馆收藏。拉斐尔在这里创造了一个具有崇高牺牲精神的母性形象。为了拯救人 类,圣母将儿子送向人间。他采用了较为稳定的金字塔形构图,来铺陈这一场面:绿 色帷幕刚刚揭开,圣洁而美貌的圣母赤着双脚,怀抱耶稣,显现在光辉普照的天上, 正徐徐下落来到人间。又似乎正在挪动轻盈的步子,从云端里走下来,但又好象凝滞 不动,露出期望的表情。一对晶莹的目光,注视着苦难的人间。由于圣母还在云中, 身上的衣服被细微的和风飘拂着。被母亲搂得紧紧的耶稣,瞪着两只小眼睛,似乎等 待圣母给他决断未来的命运。这个云中的圣母头上既没有表示神的光环,也不戴宝冠。 连圣母身上的绿色斗篷、红色上衣和褐色头巾也是十分平易近人的,另外毫无华贵的 装饰。作为画面背景的是隐约透现在天光云气中的无数小天使头像。稍不注意,这些 小天使好象是一朵朵团云。画家用这种表现手法为圣母的神圣贡献谱写赞歌。其构思 确实是新颖独到的。

    在前面,左边是跪着迎接圣母到来的罗马教皇西克斯特。他穿着厚重的金黄色法 衣,一手置于胸前,以示虔诚;一手指向画外,表示要引领圣母。添画这个真实人物 是教皇利奥十世的授意,但拉斐尔处理得恰到好处。为了既不使教皇暴怒,又不致使 画面琐碎,拉斐尔在西克斯特教皇的左下角,即法衣的下摆边角上,画了三层皇冠, 以表征其父王的权力。 右边一侧是跪着的圣女巴巴拉。这是一个宗教传说中的殉道者形象(据传她殉难 于公元250年)。但画家画了一个秀美典雅的少女形象。她对圣母下凡现出极大的恭顺 与喜悦。虔诚之心,是通过那双低垂的眼帘来表现的。她默默地注视着大地,相信人 类得救在望,是一种民女善良德行的体现。在画面的最下端,齐画框的边缘,画家又 画了两个天真烂漫的小天使。他们张着小翅膀,似乎在等待这一奇迹出现。两个胖胖 的儿童,翻起白眼朝上窥视着。由于这两个形象,整个三角形构图受到一定的破坏。 使画面空间出现不稳定感,从而形成了一个环状的形象组合。 《西斯庭圣母》的构图比较严谨,空间透视处理得极好。均衡的三角形,由于上 下左右不平衡的对比,使画面平添了生意。比如,教皇西克斯特的大法衣,使三角形 的左角显得沉重些,而巴巴拉的头部则略高于对面教皇的头,她的头顶上的绿色帷幔 又纠正了左边的这种重感。为了不使画面琐碎,画家也添画了一点细节来补充——巴 巴拉身背后的小塔就是她被囚禁在牢狱塔的象征物。为使画面的云际具有深远感,画家避免了焦点透视法则,采用多视点和并列法,人物的形体互不遮掩,整幅画面 是虚 实相生而又流畅平稳的。分散的人物实际上是在一个圆形的色彩联合内。观者既能领 悟到直观的形象,又使自己产生一种和谐的幻觉。

    背景说明
    据说画家对所有画上的人物都作了认真的素描写生。圣母似走非走的姿势、巴巴 拉扭转头部的风采、教皇侧面形体的线条透视感,这一切是以准确无误的素描为基础 的。每一个优美的造型有助于加深这一壮丽的主题,而它们又独自产生强烈的艺术感 染力,令观者神往。
     
  3. 青草地

    青草地 本站元老 ID:20728 VIP

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    圣诞将近,接着贴几幅耶稣降生的名画。

    先说点题外话。

    英文里耶稣降生叫做“Nativity”,就是“The birth of Jesus”。关于基督耶稣的降生在圣经四福音书的马太福音和路加福音里有详细的记述。圣诞之前教会都会有很多活动,包括会众表演、成人或孩子合唱、会众聚餐等等。圣诞除夕夜和圣诞节上午,基督教教会(包括天主教,基督教和东正教等)都会有盛大的纪念基督降生的活动。在现今的西方社会,即使平时不去教会崇拜的基督徒,这个时候很多都会全家装束严整去教会参加崇拜。现在国内过圣诞节,天主教和基督教会的活动也相当正规,人多,规模宏大。圣诞前夜,信主的不信主的看热闹的都往教会拥,那种热烈的场面和这边圣诞除夕圣洁宁静的烛光崇拜区别较大。

    圣诞节前四周,进入基督教日历中Advent时期,即降临节时期,就是现在这个阶段。商店里到处都有卖给孩子们的Advent 巧克力日历,一天翻开吃一颗,倒计时数算基督降生的日子一天天接近。可能很多人并不知道小孩子吃的这个巧克力日历的真正意义,也不知道Advent的意思。Advent即是基督降临的意思,后引申为降临,来临。Advent时期,是基督徒预备、调整并洁净自己的心灵,准备迎接庆祝基督降生的时期。很多教会会为孩子们准备每天一段的圣经经文,打印成文,饭前诵读,熟悉圣经中耶稣降生的细节,以准备感恩的心情迎接圣诞节的到来。据说东正教在圣诞节之前还有四十天的禁食传统,都是Advent时期的心灵预备。

    前面贴了Raphael画的Sistine Madonna。今天贴米开朗基罗的这幅Doni Tondo(Doni Madonna)和达芬奇的The virgin and child with St. Anne。这两幅画都是文艺复兴时期的杰作,诞生于艺术文化汇集地意大利的佛罗伦萨。米开朗基罗的这幅画现在在佛罗伦萨最著名的Uffizi博物馆里收藏,达芬奇这幅在巴黎卢浮宫收藏。

    米开朗基罗这幅画的中心人物是圣母圣子和玛丽亚的丈夫约瑟。图画中部那个是施洗约翰。后面的5个裸体人物一直是引起争论的话题,人们的猜测和理解众说纷纭、不一而论。我比较喜欢一种说法,是说玛丽亚左首三位,象征三位一体,右手两位,象征基督耶稣的人性和神性同时存在。

    达芬奇这幅,St.Anne的平静安详喜悦,玛丽亚的母爱和关怀都十分生动逼真。小耶稣的灵动和他搂抱小羊羔的构思,更把救主的慈爱、对人类的牧养和救赎表现了出来。

    绘画技术上的造诣下面wiiki上有很好的解释,就不赘言了。


    Doni Tondo
    [media]http://news.xinhuanet.com/shuhua/2007-11/16/xinsrc_21211041614439211205930.jpg[/media]The Virgin and Child with St Anne
    [media]http://www.godoor.net/clipart/gallery/dafenqi/dafenqi1.jpg[/media]


    Doni Tondo

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    The Doni Tondo or Doni Madonna is the earliest of only three surviving panel paintings by the adult Italian Renaissance master Michelangelo Buonarroti, and the only one to be finished.[1][2] Located in the Uffizi in Florence, Italy, in its original frame, the painting was probably commissioned by Agnolo Doni to commemorate his marriage to Maddalena Strozzi, the daughter of a powerful Tuscan family.[3] The painting is in the form of a tondo, or round frame, which is frequently associated during the Renaissance with domestic ideas.[4]
    The work was most likely created during the period after the Doni's marriage in 1503 or 1504, as well as after the excavation of the Laocoön about 1506, yet before the Sistine Chapel ceiling frescoes were begun in 1508, dating the painting to approximately late 1506 or 1507.[5] The Doni Tondo features the Holy family (the Christ child, Virgin Mary, Saint Joseph) along with Saint John the Baptist in the foreground and contains five ambiguous nude male figures in the background. The inclusion of these nude figures has been interpreted in a variety of ways.

    Description

    The Virgin is the most prominent figure in the composition, taking up much of the center of the image.[6] Mary sits directly on the ground without a cushion between herself and the ground, to better communicate the theme of her relationship to the earth.[7] The grass directly below the figure is green, which sharply contrasts to the grassless ground surrounding her, although the green is now darker and less visible than it was originally.[8] Joseph has a higher position in the image compared to Mary, as the head of the family. Mary is located between his legs, as if he is protecting her. There is some debate as to whether Mary is receiving the Christ child from Joseph or vice-versa.[9] John the Baptist is a traditional inclusion of Florentines in works depicting the Madonna and Child.[10] He is in the middle-ground of the painting, between the Holy Family and the background. The elements around the family include plants and perhaps water.
    The painting is still in its original frame, one that Michelangelo might have influenced or helped design.[11] The frame is ornately carved and rather unusual for the five heads it contains which protrude three-dimensionally into space. Similar to the nudes of the background, the meanings of these heads has been subject to speculation. The frame also contains carvings of crescent moons, stars, vegetation, and lions’ heads. These symbols are, perhaps, references to the Doni and Strozzi families, taken from each one’s coat of arms.[12] As depicted on the frame, “the moons are bound together with ribbons that interlock with the lions,” possibly referencing the marriage of the two families.[12]
    There is a horizontal band separating the foreground and background, whose function is to separate the Holy Family from the background figures and St. John the Baptist.[10][9][13] The background figures are five nudes, whose meaning and function are subject to much speculation and debate. The Holy Family is much larger in size than the nudes in the background, and there appears to be water in between the land where the Holy Family and the nudes are situated.[9] The Holy Family all gaze at Christ, but none of the nudes look directly at him..[14] The far background contains a landscape.

    Technique


    The Doni Tondo is the only existing panel picture Michelangelo painted without the aid of assistants.[10][15] The juxtaposition of bright colors foreshadows the same use of color in Michelangelo’s later Sistine ceiling frescoes. The folds of the drapery are sharply modeled, and the skin of the figures is so smooth, it looks as if the medium is marble.[10] The surface treatment of the massive figures resembles a sculpture more than a painting.[16] The nude figures in the background have softer modeling and look to be precursors to the ignudi, the male nude figures in the Sistine Ceiling frescoes.[10] Michelangelo’s technique includes shading from the most intense colors first to the lighter shades on top, using the darker colors as shadows, a technique called cangiante.[17] By applying the pigment in a certain way, Michelangelo created an "unfocused" effect in the background and focused detail in the foreground.[8] The most vibrant color is located within the Virgin’s garments, which signifies her importance within the image.[18] X-rays of the painting show that Michelangelo incorporated every known pigment used at the time.[8] The masculinity of Mary could be explained by Michelangelo’s use of male models for female figures, as was done for the Sistine Chapel.

    The Virgin and Child with St. Anne (Leonardo da Vinci)

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


    The Virgin and Child with St Anne is an oil painting by Leonardo da Vinci depicting St. Anne, her daughter the Virgin Mary and the infant Jesus. Christ is shown grappling with a sacrificial lamb symbolising his Passion whilst the Virgin tries to restrain him. The painting was commissioned as the high altarpiece for the Church of Santissima Annunziata in Florence and its theme had long preoccupied Leonardo.

    History

    In 1498, Leonardo probed into incorporating these figures together by drawing the Burlington House Cartoon (National Gallery, London), which included all three figures in addition to an infant St John the Baptist. An earlier cartoon exhibited in Santissima Annunziata in 1501 is now lost.
    Ultimately, this painting would emerge during the later years of his life, when he was occupied with an interest in mathematics and other pursuits, its rocky landscape betraying his interest in geology. The demands of his other interests may have forced him to leave this painting incomplete.
    In addition to the symbolism of Christ playing with the lamb discussed above, Fra Pietro da Novellara, a Vice General of the Carmelite Order, saw a further layer of symbolic significance to the painting. He believed that St Anne's serene expression, in contrast with Mary's anxiety for her child, "perhaps stands for the Church that does not want to have the Passion of Christ prevented".
    The painting's pyramidal structure influenced Raphael and Andrea del Sarto. Its composition inspired two High Renaissance sculptures, one by Andrea Sansovino (S. Agostino, Rome) and another, less successful work by Francesco da Sangallo (Orsanmichele, Florence).
     
  4. nicesnow

    nicesnow 新手上路 ID:14147

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    It is not true. Because the religion had so many influences before, artists had to live on the money given by the churches. Look at the art works today. I think the artists today are very glad that they can do what they what. You will never find so many works for this religion in the future any more. Ask yourself why????

     
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    Happy new year!Best wishes to everybody's 2010!

    基督与我们同在,阿门。

    现在是公元二零一零年了,想到“公元”的来历,转贴出来大家读读吧,这个前因后果写的比较详细。


    ZT:

    http://zhidao.baidu.com/question/14175762.html?fr=qrl&cid=761&index=3

    “公元是“公历纪元”的简称,是国际通行的纪年体系。以传说中耶稣基督的生年为公历元年(相当于中国西汉平帝元年)。公元常以 A.D.(拉丁文 Anno Domini 的缩写,意为“主的生年”)表示,公元前则以 B.C.(英文 Before Christ 的缩写,意为“基督以前”)表示。这种纪年体系开始在欧洲各国采用。

    在中国,早在公元前2000多年就有了自己的历法。在相当长的历史时期内,中国使用的是“干支纪元法”,即把十天干和十二地支分别组合起来,每60年为一个周期。中国从辛亥革命后的次年(1912年)起采用公历月、日,但同时采用中华民国纪年。中华人民共和国的纪年采用世界大多数国家的公元纪年制度。

    公元纪年制,过去也叫做“耶稣基督纪元”、“纪元”、“西元”等。在西方国家,用略语A.D.表示,取自拉丁语Anno Domini,Anno是“年”,Domini是“主”的意思,在英语中是“in the year of our Lord”,“in the year of the Christian era”,大致是“吾主纪元”、“耶稣基督纪元”的意思。“公元前”,西方略语为B.C.,即“before Christ”,“耶稣基督之前”的意思。
    所以,公元纪年制是从耶稣基督降生开始纪年,关键问题是确定耶稣基督降生的年份和日期。


    在创立各国通行的纪年方法以前,世界各地纪年方法很混乱。我国很早就是一个皇帝有一个年号,从登基开始纪年。欧洲有从某城市建城开始纪年的方法,有的地方根本没有纪年方法。许多历史文献记载当时发生的事件,涉及人物、地点,情节等,但没有年、日期的记载,没有“时间坐标”,偶尔有季节、时辰的描述,所以,为文献记载的事件定出时间坐标,尤其是纪年,成为史学研究的重要领域。
    公元6世纪,罗马教皇约翰一世指令当时的一位修道士Dionysius Exiguus,即“小个子”狄奥尼修斯编写一份年志,并指示年志要以“从吾主耶稣基督降生起的年份”为依据。狄奥尼修斯是当时活跃在罗马索西亚的修道士,被认为很有学问。

    在早期基督教时代,欧洲经济、文化比较发达的中心是地中海沿岸的希腊、罗马等地,但那里的人们对时间的计算却比较随便,也五花八门,没有一个统一的、标准的算法。罗马等地通常采用以罗马建城的那年作为起始的纪年法,简写为A.U.C.,即ab urbe condita,意为“从建城起”,也就是从罗马城建城算起。基督教史上的事件,《圣经》描述的事件,例如耶稣降生,耶稣被钉在十字架上等,都可以按罗马建城为起始的时间序列编年。属于其它城市影响大的地区,就按那个城市建城起始编年。这种纪年法直到拜占庭帝国时代仍然被采用。当时也有人从古希腊某一次古奥林匹克运动会开始纪年,例如第一次古希腊奥林匹克运动会是在公元前776年举行的,纪年就从那年开始。

    仅从纪年制的确立就可以看到,基督教对欧洲历法发展过程的巨大影响,实际上,这种影响一直存在,而且是多方面的。例如,当时促使历法发展的主要动力是确定复活节的日期,也就是每年春分过后的月圆以后的第一个星期日。拜占庭人为此发展了依据月球运动的阴历以及阳历28年周期的观念,并且把二者结合成532年大周期,由此确定复活节在哪一天。同样的周期性还用来计算世界“创造”后的年代。例如当时有人通过“计算”得出,耶稣降生在创世后5500年或5501年。

    因此,在拜占庭帝国时代,历法不是一门科学,也不是依据科学作出的一种约定,历法被神圣化了。同时历法状况相当混乱,不仅同时存在几种不同的纪年方法,各个事件发生日期的计算结果也常常引起争议。

    正是在这样的背景下,狄奥尼修斯接受了教皇关于编写年志的指令。他试图从古罗马建城历法加上他自己的判断来找到基督的出生日期,有了这个日期,既可以从这一点往“过去”标记基督以前的时间,也可以开始基督出生后往“未来”的时间序列。这种以某个日期为基准上溯、下延的纪年方法是先进的,当时大多数纪年法没有上溯到基准日期以前的内容。经过一番计算和研究,狄奥尼修斯最后确定:耶稣基督降生在A.U.C.(即罗马建城后)753年,临近岁尾的12月25日,然后他做了一个影响深远的决定:“从吾主耶稣基督降生起的年份”即从A.U.C.754年起,将这一年定为新的纪年法的元年,A.D.1年,亦即公元1年。日期则从A.U.C.754年1月1日起。

    狄奥尼修斯的决定一直引起不断的争议,早期比较出名的是中世纪英国历史学家亚当•彼德(Adam Bede,673?-735)反对狄奥尼修斯确定的数字。

    首先,耶稣基督降生的年份没有弄对,这可以通过参照耶稣同时代人物的生平来证明。当时有一个希律王海洛德(Herod,40B.C.-4B.C.),是圣经故事中的重要人物,在《圣经•新约》中有不少关于他的论述。当海洛德听说耶稣将成为犹太人之王时,心中大为恐慌,因而下令杀尽伯利恒附近所有两岁以下的男婴。记述耶稣生平的“马太福音”第二章说,耶稣于海洛德为王时降生在伯利恒,有智者从东方来到那路撒冷。正是海洛德王要寻找刚出生的这个婴孩并将他杀死。

    因此,海洛德应是耶稣同时代人。当时,比较确切地知道海洛德死于A.U.C.750年。如果耶稣真的如狄奥尼修斯所确定的那样生于A.U.C.753年,那就说明耶稣出生时海洛德已死,也就不可能有屠杀男婴的事件,《圣经》将不得不作重大修改。因此,根据《圣经》中记述的这个情节,耶稣必定诞生于A.U.C.753年,或者更早,也就是说,耶稣实际上应该诞生于公元前4年,亦即耶稣基督纪元前4年或者更早。这岂不荒谬!由于狄奥尼修斯的失误,公元纪年制出现了这个不应有的矛盾。这真是有点和历史开玩笑。好在今天人们使用公元纪年制时,没有必要一定弄清耶稣是在公元1年降生,还是在公元前4年降生。

    此外,狄奥尼修斯不是以耶稣基督的降生日,12月25日作为新年,而是以降生后第八天行割礼的日子,即A.U.C.754年1月1日作为起始,这与罗马和拉丁基督教历法中的新年也不相符。

    尽管狄奥尼修斯创立的公元纪年制有缺陷,但它还是逐渐被人接受。上面提到的英国历史学家亚当。彼德对狄奥尼修斯的数字提出过批评性意见,但他发现狄奥尼修斯的新纪年法很有用,于是在他编写详细英国编年史的页边注上了公元的日期。英国教会于公元663年正式采用这个新的计算年份的方法。

    1949年9月27日,中国人民政治协商会议第一届全体会议一致通过:中华人民共和国采用公元纪年



    Wikipedia:

    "AD" redirects here. For other uses, see AD (disambiguation).
    [​IMG] Dionysius Exiguus invented Anno Domini years to date Easter.




    Anno Domini (abbreviated as AD or A.D., sometimes found in the irregular form Anno Domine) and Before Christ (abbreviated as BC or B.C.) are designations used to number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars. The calendar era to which they refer is based on the traditionally reckoned year of the conception or birth of Jesus, with AD denoting years after the start of this epoch, and BC denoting years before the start of this epoch. There is no year zero in this scheme, so the year AD 1 immediately follows the year 1 BC.
    The Gregorian calendar, and the year numbering system associated with it, is the calendar system with the most widespread use in the world today. For decades, it has been the unofficial global standard, recognized by international institutions such as the United Nations and the Universal Postal Union. It is also a basis of scholarly dating, though some people adopt the Common/Christian Era labels, retaining the same numeric values but using the label "CE" (Common/Christian Era) instead of "AD", and "BCE" (Before the Common/Christian Era) instead of "BC".
    The term Anno Domini is Medieval Latin, translated as In the year of (the/Our) Lord.[1][2]:782 It is sometimes specified more fully as Anno Domini Nostri Iesu (Jesu) Christi ("In the Year of Our Lord Jesus Christ").
    Traditionally, English has copied Latin usage by placing the abbreviation before the year number for AD; since BC is not derived from Latin it is placed after the year number (for example: 64 BC, but AD 2010). However, placing the AD after the year number (as in "2010 AD") is now also common. The abbreviation is also widely used after the number of a century or millennium, as in "fourth century AD" or "second millennium AD" (although conservative usage formerly rejected such expressions).[3]
    Because B.C. is the English abbreviation for Before Christ, some people incorrectly conclude that A.D. must mean After Death, i.e., after the death of Jesus. If that were true, the thirty-three or so years of his life would not be in any era.[4]
     
  7. 青草地

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    十四世纪的意大利,有两位杰出的天才,一位是诗人但丁,一位是画家乔托。有人认为这两位文化和艺术的先驱以他们出色的创造力开辟了那个文化艺术的新时代,文艺复兴时代。

    乔托被看作是一个里程碑一样的人物,他的创作使艺术开始告别中世纪拜占庭僵硬形体的禁锢,透视法在他的作品里被重新使用,他尤其注重写实和情感在绘画中的体现,被看作西方绘画中自然主义的先驱。乔托生前就备受关注,集画家、建筑家为一身,他的大红大紫使他在当时富有并且地位高尚,他还与罗马主教交情深厚,被当作当时佛罗伦萨的首席画师。艺术家们的独立地位从他才开始在西方受到普遍认可。

    贴一幅他的代表作和相关解释。

    [media]http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/40/Giotto_-_Scrovegni_-_-36-_-_Lamentation_%28The_Mourning_of_Christ%29.jpg[/media]哀悼耶穌基督 (1304-1306)200×185公分,壁畫。

    http://www.titien.net/peinture/24/喬托(Giotto1266-1337)-+哀悼耶穌基督(1304-1306)

    乔托,弗羅倫斯人,他是義大利前文藝復興最為重要的畫,為西方近代繪畫的創始人。是西方繪畫史裡,首創自然寫實主義的畫,他突破了義大利拜占庭藝術的僵化 形式,並創造一種結實而具有空間感的繪畫,同時賦予人物高度的自然與立體感,並且將其熱情與想像貫注於景物上,那這種事實求是的精神,就成為西方繪畫藝術 之主流。



    哀悼耶穌基督(1304-1306): 200×185公分,壁畫,巴杜(Padoue)斯羅峰熱尼(Scrovegni)禮拜堂。


    「哀悼耶穌基督」壁畫典藏於威尼斯近郊的巴杜(Padoue)斯羅峰熱尼(Scrovegni)禮拜堂,喬托呈現聖經中最悲壯的一刻,表現人類的絕 望、喪心和痛苦。耶穌基督似乎剛從十字架上被抬下來在地面上,身穿黑色衣服之聖母哀戚的擁抱著死氣沈沈的耶穌軀體,一女聖徒扶著手,另一女聖徒(瑪德蓮) 則扶著腳,悲泣的場景,四周環繞著聖徒們,嚴肅的神情,左側兩位女聖徒,一位舉起雙手作出難以相信失望的動作,另一則悲痛地雙手合掌擺在臉頰下,後面跟隨 群眾們。右側兩位男聖徒嚴肅的神態,中間可能是聖-瓊(St-Jaen)絕望的身往前傾雙手往後伸張的絕望哀嚎。那前景蹲著兩位裹在衣物裡的人物,提供著 觀賞者的我們一種臨場參與事件的幻覺。那麼這幅畫明確地由對角線形式的岩石劃分成天堂與人間,人們看到連天上十位小天使以各式各樣的姿態神情也都示意的表 達他們深層的哀悼,在這天地悲愴場景經由這嚴峻的山岩風景更強加這份悲痛的氣氛 ,是可以感覺到的喬托走出中世紀沒有體積及拋棄貼金薄片的背景,進入三度空間的繪畫幻覺世界裡,迎接新的光線與情感,在紮實自然寫實下栩栩如生的人物,呈現出現實寫真的感 覺,讓人恍然親臨現場親眼目睹如此悲慟的事件,相當震撼人類心靈,傳遞真摯宗教情操,並將繪畫藝術帶入新紀元。


    Wikipedia:


    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giotto_di_Bondone


    Giotto di Bondone (c. 1267 – January 8, 1337), better known simply as Giotto, was an Italian painter and architect from Florence in the late Middle Ages. He is generally considered the first in a line of great artists who contributed to the Italian Renaissance.
    Giotto's contemporary Giovanni Villani wrote that Giotto was "the most sovereign master of painting in his time, who drew all his figures and their postures according to nature. And he was given a salary by the Comune of Florence in virtue of his talent and excellence."[1]
    The later 16th century biographer Giorgio Vasari says of him: "[H]e made a decisive break with the crude traditional Byzantine style, and brought to life the great art of painting as we know it today, introducing the technique of drawing accurately from life, which had been neglected for more than two hundred years."[2]
    Giotto's masterwork is the decoration of the Scrovegni Chapel in Padua, commonly called the Arena Chapel, completed around 1305. This fresco cycle depicts the life of the Virgin and the life of Christ. It is regarded as one of the supreme masterpieces of the Early Renaissance.[3] That Giotto painted the Arena Chapel and that he was chosen by the Comune of Florence in 1334 to design the new campanile (bell tower) of the Florence Cathedral are among the few certainties of his biography. Almost every other aspect of it is subject to controversy: his birthdate, his birthplace, his appearance, his apprenticeship, the order in which he created his works, whether or not he painted the famous frescoes at Assisi, and his burial place.
     
  8. CHRIS88

    CHRIS88 基督门徒 ID:68059 管理成员 VIP

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    转杜杜姐妹诗一首:


    永遇乐

    渥太华主恩堂新堂献礼感怀

    杜杜


    喜上春梢,
    渥京草绿,
    新殿圣礼。
    姐妹同心,
    弟兄联手,
    百万平地起。

    主恩浩荡,
    春秋冬夏,
    廿载坎沟平地。
    想当年、寒屋陋舍,
    三五敬虔团契。

    风霜雪雨,
    未卜前路,
    暮暮朝朝寻觅。
    我主慈爱,
    晚星晨露,
    小树成林立。

    千人团聚,
    布衣、总理,
    深罪蒙恩得洗。
    荣光处,新朋旧友,
    同心向你。

    http://www.duduqingcaodi.com/2009/poems/Ci4b.htm
     
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