精华 学习历史:黑暗的中世纪?

CatLostHerFish

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全文转载这个冗长的判决书,因为看到这份400年前的文献,俺很是惊叹。结合其他的材料,阿Q认为可以安全地得到以下结论:

1、自始至终,伽利略没有受到任何人身伤害、没有入狱,仅仅是宽松的软禁。尽管他客观上挑战了天主教会的最高权威:主张重新解释圣经,以及在《对话》一书中出卖和贬低他的教皇朋友
阿Q认为宽松的软禁不算惩罚?

2、宗教法庭的审理过程似乎包含了现代西方司法的很多要素:伽利略有权力进行辩解、法庭方做了扎实的调查、重要结论不是由个人给出,而是专门小组提供意见,最终意见由7位红衣主教签名。中文资料讲有三位拒绝签字,没有得到证实

3、两次判决都是专注于神学,侧重于要求抛弃、不传播这种“异端”的思想。这里隐含了两个重要信息:
3.1 对于持有“异端”思想的人,只要放弃,即可免受罚
3.2 从来没有禁止他继续从事直接导致他持有“异端”思想的活动:科学研究
这个掩耳盗铃。让伽利略放弃的"异端"思想是什么?是科学结论,阻碍科学思想的传播不算阻碍科学?

6、当时,伽利略与哥白尼都没有完全证明日心说是正确的,教会对科学的态度始终如一:将日心说当成Hypothesis,而不是事实看待。从严格科学意义上讲,这是正确的。1633年审查的重点也在于《对话》是否将日心说当成事实看待
这个跟现在基督教对进化论是一样的态度。阿Q认为打压进化论里的理论部分的传播是天经地义的,根据也是从这里来的。
换言之,所有理论都不能传播,直到成为事实才能传播。那不传播,谁能继续在该理论的基础上搞研究,大家都自顾自,都从0开始?

7、1633年天主教会已经受到了宗教改革的强大压力,对于可能影响到他们权威的日心说,以及重新解释圣经的主张,天主教会这样的处理,很难将他们与“残暴”“专制”等等的词联系起来
这个不是天主教自愿的。如果现在让基督教得势,重掌政权,当年的悲剧还是会发生。

9、鉴于当时的主流世俗学术界仍然是主张地心说,日心说在学术界的推广本来就有阻力。难以判断对伽里略的审判是否对科学发展造成了实质性的负面影响
不管对伽里略的审判是否对科学发展造成了实质性的负面影响,天主教封口令的罪过已经是事实,没什么可辩解的。
 

salas88

超版万岁万岁万万岁! 一统天下,万寿无疆!
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保罗二世的道歉让阿Q想到了这些:

1、对伽利略事件的指责,事实上在拿今天的标准在衡量400年前的天主教会。就算如此,尽管当时的天主教会做出了错误的决定,但是此过程却有诸多值得很多现代政权学习之处

2、类似的,如果拿这个标准去衡量,400年前,100年前的基督教没有得到广泛传播的国家/政权,会有什么样的结果?或者拿去检验1949年至今的中国政府,对比一下他们如何处理“政治犯”,看看他们怎样审判政治局委员?

3、换句话讲,在对待科学的态度上,哪个政权做得更好?1633年刚好是徐光启死的时间,偶然发现:明王朝长期执行不准私习天文,严禁民间研制历法政策的结果。明沈德符《万历野获编》所说“国初学天文有历禁,习历者遣戍,造历者殊死

4、保罗二世提出的几个科学相关的问题,直到今天仍然没有完美的答案

谁有资格指责当时的天主教会压制科学、迫害科学家?


阿q是华人界中罕见的逻辑思维缜密,以理服人,抛却脑袋直通屁股桎梏的人。赞一个!:cool:
 

CatLostHerFish

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* 阿莫里:巴黎大学教授,1210年,因宣扬泛神论被死后追审,墓穴被挖,十个弟子全部被处决
* 西克尔:巴黎大学教授,因在物理研究上有所谓异端言论,被教会活活打死

关于这两个故事,俺用尽阿Q所知的所有放狗方法,无法找到阿莫里和西克尔是何方神圣。中文网页分别是十几万和二十几万个搜索结果,以上两句话一字不差被无数网站重复引用,但是没有任何一个地方能够提供任何一点点其他信息

不禁叹道:这两句话包含了11条人命,相信最开始写这两句话的人是知道一些信息的,为什么他可以只凭结论去做这样严重的指控?其他一字不改转播这两条消息的人,不加任何甄别,任何求证,就将他们当成真理转载?

是,阿Q愚钝,愣是找不到这两个人的资料,但恐怕那么多聪明人没有下这个功夫?

是的,找不到资料不等于证明这两个“迫害”不存在,但是窃以为对待历史不应该是这种态度的
这个人估计是阿莫里。
http://muse.jhu.edu/books/9780812206722

顺藤摸瓜,这个人估计是西克尔。这个人的死有争议,不太象被活活打死的。
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Condemnations_of_1210–1277
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siger_of_Brabant

阿Q的贴刚看到一半,等看完了再回来仔细研究。
 

CatLostHerFish

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回头看看古典时期的两个故事,先是图使馆:

* 在教皇格里高利一世(公元590年 ~公元604年)时期,古罗马图书馆也被付之一炬

有个小小的疑问。“古罗马图书馆也被付之一炬”这句话被无数中文网站,包括中文Wiki,类似的,转载的这些网站没有提供关于这件事情的任何其他信息。放狗并没有找到一个被烧毁的古罗马图书馆,这个著名古代图书馆列表也没有一个古罗马图书馆。于是再感叹一次,在对待历史的态度上也能闻到文革的硝烟!
http://www.milligazette.com/Archives/01122002/0112200252.htm

It is no mere chance that for most of its 2000 years of history of Christianity not only did not inspire a spirit of learning at an extensive level, but often suppressed it. Churchmen and Crusaders were responsible for the destruction of hundreds of thousands of Greek and Muslim books. For example, in 389 AD, the celebrated library of Serapis at Alexandria was ruined on the order of Archbishop Theophilus. The guiding principle of Pope Gregory was, "Ignorance is the mother of piety." According to this principle, Gregory burned the precious Palestine Library founded by Emperor Augustus, destroyed the greater part of the writings of Livy and forbade the study of the classics. The Crusaders destroyed the splendid library of Tripoli and reduced to ashes many of the glorious centres of Saracenic art and culture. Ferdinand and Isabella put to flames all the Muslim and Jewish works they could find in Spain. Nor is it a coincidence that when science and learning did become widespread in Europe in spite of the Church, it was accompanied by a rejection or reduction of the authority of the Bible, and science became completely secularised.

The story is now generally rejected as a fable and a fabrication. Let me conclude this piece with a remark by Dr. Singhal: "Seldom in history has there been a parallel for transcribing a falsehood with such persistence, conviction, and indignation, in spite of contrary evidence."


http://www.religionacademy.com/CP/590-604-pope-gregory-i-had-library-palatine-apollo-burned

"Pope [St.] Gregory I ("The Great") objected to grammatical study, condemned education for all but the clergy, forbade laymen to read even the Bible, and had the library of the Palatine Apollo burned. He also had many Roman marble statues torn down and turned into lime. [Ellerbe, 48, 50]"
 

CatLostHerFish

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先从简单的开始。

接着阿Q的思路看看百度上的解释里离谱的部分。

先和wiki对比看看对黑暗时代的解释。(这里假设wiki的立场是中立的。)

http://baike.baidu.com/view/65782.htm
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dark_Ages_(historiography)

>这个时期的欧洲没有一个强有力的政权来统治。封建割据带来频繁的战争,造成科技和生产力发展停滞,
>人民生活在毫无希望的痛苦中,所以中世纪或者中世纪早期在欧美普遍被称作“黑暗时代”
>(1) 科技和生产力发展停滞,人民生活在毫无希望的痛苦中

在百度版中的上面的诠释是wiki上没有的。尤其是“人民生活在毫无希望的痛苦中”这句话,很象新闻联播的海外新闻。

但是百度的简介部分还算中肯,跟wiki上内容基本一致。拉丁文化的遗失,天主教的腐败,信仰对理智思维的压制,和后期对中世纪的田园生活的缅怀。

>(2) 教会统治非常严厉,并且控制了西欧的文化教育
>(4) 严格控制科学思想的传播,并设立宗教裁判所惩罚异端
>(5) 学校教育也都是为了服务于神学
这三条没有一条是对的,这个比较复杂,这里先不说。

>(6) 在教皇格里高利一世(公元590年 ~公元604年)时期,古罗马图书馆也被付之一炬
>有个小小的疑问。“古罗马图书馆也被付之一炬”这句话被无数中文网站,包括中文Wiki,类似的,转载的这些网站没有提供关于这件事情的任何其他信息。放狗并没有找到一个被烧毁的古罗马图书馆,这个著名古代图书馆列表也没有一个古罗马图书馆。于是再感叹一次,在对待历史的态度上也能闻到文革的硝烟!
这个是我找到的老外中流传的传言,其真假我无从分辨。不知什么时候这种传言流到了中国,然后就代代相传了。
http://www.milligazette.com/Archives...0112200252.htm

It is no mere chance that for most of its 2000 years of history of Christianity not only did not inspire a spirit of learning at an extensive level, but often suppressed it. Churchmen and Crusaders were responsible for the destruction of hundreds of thousands of Greek and Muslim books. For example, in 389 AD, the celebrated library of Serapis at Alexandria was ruined on the order of Archbishop Theophilus. The guiding principle of Pope Gregory was, "Ignorance is the mother of piety." According to this principle, Gregory burned the precious Palestine Library founded by Emperor Augustus, destroyed the greater part of the writings of Livy and forbade the study of the classics. The Crusaders destroyed the splendid library of Tripoli and reduced to ashes many of the glorious centres of Saracenic art and culture. Ferdinand and Isabella put to flames all the Muslim and Jewish works they could find in Spain. Nor is it a coincidence that when science and learning did become widespread in Europe in spite of the Church, it was accompanied by a rejection or reduction of the authority of the Bible, and science became completely secularised.

The story is now generally rejected as a fable and a fabrication. Let me conclude this piece with a remark by Dr. Singhal: "Seldom in history has there been a parallel for transcribing a falsehood with such persistence, conviction, and indignation, in spite of contrary evidence."

在不同的网站上,提到格里高利一世禁止除了神职人员以外的人接受教育。
http://www.religionacademy.com/CP/59...-apollo-burned

"Pope [St.] Gregory I ("The Great") objected to grammatical study, condemned education for all but the clergy, forbade laymen to read even the Bible, and had the library of the Palatine Apollo burned. He also had many Roman marble statues torn down and turned into lime. [Ellerbe, 48, 50]"

http://www.theforbiddenknowledge.com/hardtruth/lies_britanica.htm

Pope Gregory I forbade the clergy to open secular schools.

>(7)自从公元312年君士坦丁宣布合法化基督教后,基督徒就从被迫害者变为迫害者。他们敌视一切不合乎圣经的东西,包括新思想及科学等
前半句没问题。
后半句不仔细看,容易产生误解。产生误解的原因是中国人在无神论教育下,潜意识里觉得宗教和科学是不相容的。所以很容易误读为,基督徒敌视科学。仔细看,他们敌视的不合乎圣经的科学,这个是对的。
 

CatLostHerFish

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(8)被基督徒称为拯救了基督教的法兰克国王查理大帝(公元742-814),就是用刀和剑来传播基督教的.萨克森人是异教徒,查理曼坚持要让他所统治的萨克森人改信基督教,拒绝接受洗礼和后来又改信异教的人均被判处死刑。在这些强迫改宗运动的过程中,据估计有多达四分之一的萨克森人被杀害。
没有找到阿Q对这一条的评价,不知道我是不是看漏了,也可能阿Q集中精力在基督教如何迫害科学上,对基督教迫害异教徒不感兴趣。
看看我自己找到的东西,有出入的地方尽管排砖。

查理大帝这个人在历史上意义重大,以后我还会提到别的方面,现在光看武力传播基督教这一点是否真实。

http://www.christianitytoday.com/ch/1999/issue63/63h042.html

先说到罗马对基督教的迫害。罗马开始对基督教是宽容的,多神教嘛,对再加一个神是没意见的。问题出在基督教对别的教都不容上。基督教徒拒绝罗马的一些多神教的一些传统还是啥的,最终导致罗马政权认为被威胁,然后看是迫害基督教。这个迫害的起因其实是政治迫害,而非宗教迫害。
基督教到了中国,遇到同样的问题,康熙干脆把传教士赶出国门,不过好像如果传教士签个什么东西,还能留下来。但是没有看过康熙杀传教士的文章。

从这篇文章看到的是,武力传播基督教不是从查理大帝开始,而是从罗马皇帝Constantine开始。他最终决定这样做,是因为他从圣经中找到的依据:
Eventually he decided it was, and one biblical text that persuaded him was the parable of the great banquet (Luke 14:16-24). A rich man gives a feast, and when no one he invites shows up, he tells his servants to go out and "Compel people to come in."

个人不认为Constantine是在从圣经中找借口,如果是一个虔诚的信徒,有神在心中,是不敢这么做的。
这也是我觉得圣经可怕的地方,很多人拿着它当依据做坏事的时候,并不认为自己是在做坏事,而认为是在遵从神的旨意做好事。

文章中没有写查理曼强行convert的具体数量,数量我不关心,他的政策是正对所有异教徒,不是杀一儆百型的。
记得CFC上有人说过被迫害的异教徒的数量不多啊?这个数字只能说不要命坚持信异教的人不多,不能由此下定论说基督教对异教徒比别的暴政宽容。

顺便提到穆xx,他们虽然有圣战,但是他们是不强迫人入他们的教的,因为他们的经书里很明确的写着,信仰无勉强。这个是我在读中世纪历史之前的一个误解,这里更正自己一下。

佛教就不用说了,Hindu也是宗教容忍的。不过刚看到印度的甘地被害,是因为有Hindu教徒对他对穆xx的容忍表示不满,把他杀害了。说明再是宗教本身宽容,轮到个人,还是很难做到。
但是像基督教这样以宗教的名义发动的“正义”的清扫行动,别的宗教里没有看到。
 

CatLostHerFish

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(9)历史上就有很多伟大的思想家及科学家被基督徒迫害
* 哥白尼:意大利著名天文学家,著有《天体运行论》,遭到教会残酷迫害。1543年5月20日病逝
回答在#10
http://bbs.comefromchina.com/forum183/thread1167296-2.html#post7801669
这个我和阿Q意见一致,完全是扭曲事实。

哥白尼早年一直不敢出版《天体运行论》,后来是朋友帮其出版的,哥白尼临终前才看到出版的书。
而对这本书的批判,是几十年后的事了。这本书一直被教会忽视,因为:

https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/天体运行论

当时哥白尼重病在身,委托这位教士出版发行。奥西安德尔为使这书能安全发行,假造了一篇无署名的前言,说书中的理论不一定為行星在空间的真正运动,不过是为编算星表、预推行星的位置而想出来的一种人为的设计。这篇前言在半个多世纪的时间里,骗过了许多人。

后来教会开始攻击这本书,据说跟布鲁诺和伽利略公开宣传日心学说有关,而且这两个人都不是圆滑之辈。

http://voices.yahoo.com/islamic-astronomers-copernicus-question-of-732283.html
哥白尼之前已有零星的日心学理论,有人argue哥白尼是受到伊斯兰科学家的影响,这个就和欧洲argue说欧洲的印刷术是他们自己发明的,跟中国无关一样,很难讲清楚。

在学习中世纪历史的时候,我发现即使基督教国家和伊斯兰国家之间有着解不开的血债,思想交流却一直存在。而即使中国离基督教国家有多遥远,中国的科技最终还是流传到了基督教国家。
我的一个疑问是,基督教国家和伊斯兰国家之间有扯不断的联系是不是因为它们有互相依存的贸易关系?这个还要慢慢看。
一个感慨是,科学真是个超越国界,超越宗教的东西。科学的发展不是单个欧洲自己独立完成的,国家之间的科技交流使每一个小进步环环相扣,缺了哪一环都不行。
 

CatLostHerFish

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* 希柏提亚(375-415) 是史上第一个为人所知的女数学家。吉朋在《罗马帝国衰亡史》中叙述时说:“她由车上被拉下来,剥脱衣服到一丝不挂,被拖至教堂,为一群野蛮而无人性的狂徒,用尖利的蚝将她的肉由骨上剥削下来,手脚砍下,抛掷火焰之中
回答在#53-#66
http://bbs.comefromchina.com/forum183/thread1167296-2.html#post7853083
布鲁诺是因为异教言论而被迫害,伽利略是因为科学观点违反圣经解释而被迫害,虽然百度有点夸张,但是与“他们敌视一切不合乎圣经的东西,包括新思想及科学等”相符,掠过。

看了希柏提亚,整个事件确实比较复杂,个人认为她是宗教冲突升级后的牺牲品,是当时民间宗教冲突的一个缩影。用如此残忍的方法对付一个手无寸铁的女人,难怪这个事件如此臭名昭著。
因为宗教而导致仇恨和暴力,是不是很可怕。现在这样的仇恨和暴力还在继续,为什么。。。
事件本身为真,但是把这个当成“他们敌视一切不合乎圣经的东西,包括新思想及科学等”的例子,文不对题。
 

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* 比利时生理学家维萨留斯,由于出版了解剖学著作《人体结构》,于1564年被迫去圣地——耶路撒冷作忏悔,归途中遇难
回答在#46--#49
http://bbs.comefromchina.com/forum183/thread1167296-2.html#post7824719
帕利西和塞尔维特都是因为异教言论而被处死,掠过。

看看维萨留斯,和阿Q找到的资料一样,不象被教会迫害的。

但是这个被迫害的谣言的发源地很有意思:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andreas_Vesalius

For many years it was assumed that Vesalius's pilgrimage was due to pressures of the Inquisition. Today this is generally considered to be without foundation (see C.D. O'Malley Andreas Vesalius' Pilgrimage, Isis 45:2, 1954) and is dismissed by modern biographers. It appears the story was spread by Hubert Languet, a diplomat under Emperor Charles V and then under the Prince of Orange, who claimed in 1565 that Vesalius had performed an autopsy on an aristocrat in Spain when the heart was still beating, leading to the Inquisition condemning him to death. The story went on to claim that Philip II had the sentence commuted to a pilgrimage. The story re-surfaced several times over the next few years, living on until recent times.

这个谣言由Hubert Languet传出。查了一下,此人为新教的改革家,个人猜测他传出这个谣言,估计是为了打击天主教吧?

心中产生的疑问?新教为了打击天主教,还造过别的谣吗?
这些人认为为了上帝,用什么手段都可以吗?
 

CatLostHerFish

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* 阿莫里:巴黎大学教授,1210年,因宣扬泛神论被死后追审,墓穴被挖,十个弟子全部被处决
* 西克尔:巴黎大学教授,因在物理研究上有所谓异端言论,被教会活活打死

关于这两个故事,俺用尽阿Q所知的所有放狗方法,无法找到阿莫里和西克尔是何方神圣。中文网页分别是十几万和二十几万个搜索结果,以上两句话一字不差被无数网站重复引用,但是没有任何一个地方能够提供任何一点点其他信息

不禁叹道:这两句话包含了11条人命,相信最开始写这两句话的人是知道一些信息的,为什么他可以只凭结论去做这样严重的指控?其他一字不改转播这两条消息的人,不加任何甄别,任何求证,就将他们当成真理转载?

是,阿Q愚钝,愣是找不到这两个人的资料,但恐怕那么多聪明人没有下这个功夫?

是的,找不到资料不等于证明这两个“迫害”不存在,但是窃以为对待历史不应该是这种态度的
最后两个百度贴出的科学家:

阿莫里,迁出11条人命。
http://muse.jhu.edu/books/9780812206722

Shortly before 1206, Master Amalric of Bene was summoned to the papal court to answer allegations of disseminating false teaching. The investigation did not turn out well for Amalric. His views were condemned by Pope Innocent III and upon his return to the University of Paris he had to recant them in front of his fellow scholars...

Due to persecutions, this sect does not appear to have long survived the death of its founder. Not long after the burning of ten of their members (1210), the sect itself lost its importance, while some of the surviving Amalricians became Brethren of the Free Spirit.[1]

西克尔。这个人的死有争议,但是被迫害是事实
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Condemnations_of_1210–1277
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siger_of_Brabant

同时,看到Condemnations_of 1210 1277,这个阿Q也注意到的大事件,因为对亚里士多德的否定,被说成现代科学的开端。
这个事件很有意思,到后面会提到。
 

qwerty0

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哥白尼早年一直不敢出版《天体运行论》,后来是朋友帮其出版的,哥白尼临终前才看到出版的书。
而对这本书的批判,是几十年后的事了。这本书一直被教会忽视,因为:
https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/天体运行论
当时哥白尼重病在身,委托这位教士出版发行。奥西安德尔为使这书能安全发行,假造了一篇无署名的前言,说书中的理论不一定為行星在空间的真正运动,不过是为编算星表、预推行星的位置而想出来的一种人为的设计。这篇前言在半个多世纪的时间里,骗过了许多人。
后来教会开始攻击这本书,据说跟布鲁诺和伽利略公开宣传日心学说有关,而且这两个人都不是圆滑之辈。
http://voices.yahoo.com/islamic-astronomers-copernicus-question-of-732283.html
哥白尼之前已有零星的日心学理论,有人argue哥白尼是受到伊斯兰科学家的影响,这个就和欧洲argue说欧洲的印刷术是他们自己发明的,跟中国无关一样,很难讲清楚。

1、哥白尼为什么临终才出版《天体运行论》,为什么?莫须有的罪名并不是中国特有的。在看历史资料,如果在略略数语后,即抛出一句“因为....所以...”这种资料俺都认为垃圾,不会认真对待
2、很容易可以查到当时教皇对天体运行论的态度;查到天体运行论出版前跟教会的互动;其出版也是得到什么Bishop的直接帮助
3、前面也提到1582年格利高里历的修订
日心说与公历 (Gregorian calendar)
下面提供另一侧面让我们了解天主教会对地心说,进而对科学的态度。Gregorian calendar 是教皇 Pope Gregory XIII 1582年签发,并使用至今。Gregorian calendar即参考了哥白尼的数学方法用于对Julian calendar的改进,Pope Leo X组织的改革Julian calendar的小组即邀请哥白尼参与
4、again,看看当时的学术环境:
http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/galileo/letterkepler.html

与主题关系不大的材料。抄录在于因为阿Q认为它有助于认识两个问题:1、当时的学术气氛是怎样的?2、当时科学界(与宗教无关)对日心说的态度

意大利科学家写给德国数学家的一封信,1597
Galileo-Kepler Correspondence, 1597
[Galileo to Kepler, 1597]

....Like you, I accepted the Copernicun position several years ago and discovered from thence the causes of many natural effects which are doubtless inexplicable by the current theories. I have written up many of my reasons and refutations on the subject, but I have not dared until now to bring them into the open, being warned by the fortunes of Copernicus himself, our master, who procured immortal fame among a few but stepped down among the great crowd (for the foolish are numerous), only to be derided and dishonored. I would dare publish my thoughts if there were many like you; but, since there are not, I shall forebear....

[Kepler to Galileo, 1597]

....I could only have wished that you, who have so profound an insight, would choose another way. You advise us, by your personal example, and in discreetly veiled fashion, to retreat before the general ignorance and not to expose ourselves or heedlessly to oppose the violent attacks of the mob of scholars (and in this you follow Plato and Pythagoras, our true perceptors). But after a tremendous task has been begun in our time, first by Copernicus and then by many very learned mathematicians, and when the assertion that the Earth moves can no longer be considered something new, would it not be much better to pull the wagon to its goal by our joint efforts, now that we have got it under way, and gradually, with powerful voices, to shout down the common herd, which really does not weigh the arguments very carefully? Thus perhaps by cleverness we may bring it to a knowledge of the truth. With your arguments you would at the same time help your comrades who endure so many unjust judgments, for they would obtain either comfort from your agreement or protection from your influential position. It is not only your Italians who cannot believe that they move if they do not feel it, but we in Germany also do not by any means endear ourselves with this idea. Yet there are ways by which we protect ourselves against these difficulties....

Be of good cheer, Galileo, and come out publicly. If I judge correctly, there are only a few of the distinguished mathematicians of Europe who would part company with us, so great is the power of truth. If Italy seems a less favorable place for your publication, and if you look for difficulties there, perhaps Germany will allow us this freedom.

Source: Giorgio de Santillana, The Crime of Galileo (1955).
 

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http://www.milligazette.com/Archives/01122002/0112200252.htm

It is no mere chance that for most of its 2000 years of history of Christianity not only did not inspire a spirit of learning at an extensive level, but often suppressed it. Churchmen and Crusaders were responsible for the destruction of hundreds of thousands of Greek and Muslim books. For example, in 389 AD, the celebrated library of Serapis at Alexandria was ruined on the order of Archbishop Theophilus. The guiding principle of Pope Gregory was, "Ignorance is the mother of piety." According to this principle, Gregory burned the precious Palestine Library founded by Emperor Augustus, destroyed the greater part of the writings of Livy and forbade the study of the classics. The Crusaders destroyed the splendid library of Tripoli and reduced to ashes many of the glorious centres of Saracenic art and culture. Ferdinand and Isabella put to flames all the Muslim and Jewish works they could find in Spain. Nor is it a coincidence that when science and learning did become widespread in Europe in spite of the Church, it was accompanied by a rejection or reduction of the authority of the Bible, and science became completely secularised.

The story is now generally rejected as a fable and a fabrication. Let me conclude this piece with a remark by Dr. Singhal: "Seldom in history has there been a parallel for transcribing a falsehood with such persistence, conviction, and indignation, in spite of contrary evidence."

http://www.religionacademy.com/CP/590-604-pope-gregory-i-had-library-palatine-apollo-burned

"Pope [St.] Gregory I ("The Great") objected to grammatical study, condemned education for all but the clergy, forbade laymen to read even the Bible, and had the library of the Palatine Apollo burned. He also had many Roman marble statues torn down and turned into lime. [Ellerbe, 48, 50]"

又是这种只有结论没有证据的历史文章!历史不是评论出来的,历史是从证据中查证出来的。大英百科对亚历山大图书馆的描述及其简单,略过。看看列举了原始信息来源的Wiki如何讲这个事情:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serapeum
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Library_of_Alexandria#Caesar.27s_conquest_in_48_BC

大意是,关于亚历山大图书馆的毁灭过程是“未知”的,有多个自相矛盾的不同历史来源。大体有四类:

Julius Caesar's fire during theAlexandrian War in 48 BC;
the attack of Aurelian in AD 270 – 275;
the decree of Coptic Pope Theophilus in 391 AD;
and the Muslim conquest in (or after) AD 642

其中和基督徒相关的是第三个,即391年基督徒摧毁了塞拉芬神庙,其中有一个“daughter library”。塞拉芬图书馆较小,比主馆藏书少。前两次图书馆的破坏程度是有争议的。“The Serapeum housed part of the Great Library, but it is not known how many, if any, books were contained in it at the time of destruction”
 
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