夏天了,要远离有毒植物啊

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5 poisonous plants of Southern Ontario you should avoid

As temperatures climb this summer, traffic on the hiking trails will only increase.

But a hike could bring on illness, or a hospital stay if you get your hands, or other body parts, on any of the poisonous plants that grow across Southern Ontario.

Some of them may look harmless, and sometimes even beautiful, but contact with these plants can cause symptoms ranging from itching, irritating, and sometimes painful rashes to extremely dangerous if ingested.

There are several species of poisonous plants in Ontario. Here are some of the most common ones you need to know before you head out:




1. Poison Ivy
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Description: The saying "leaves of three, let it be" warns you to keep away from this dreaded plant. Leaves are glossy green, alternate and consist of three leaflets with the middle leaflet having a much longer stalk. The edges of the leaves may be smooth or toothed.

Where: Along the forest edge, in meadows, forest openings and trails.

Adverse effects: Poison ivy is a very common trigger of allergic contact dermatitis or inflammation of the skin. It contains the potent antigen urushiol, which will cause a reaction in 60 to 80 percent of the people who are exposed to it. Oil resin from the plant may be carried on any object it comes in contact with – clothing, shoes or pet fur - and then transferred to the skin.




2. Giant Hogweed
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Description: This invasive plant can reach heights of 4 to 5 metres and has a reddish-purple stem measuring from 5 to 10 centimetres in diameter. It flowers from June to September and has a cluster of flowers measuring up to 1.1 metres across. Each cluster will have 30–20 flowers.

Where: Giant hogweed can be found along roadsides, trails and stream banks.

Adverse effects: If you come in contact with this plant, you may experience severe burns to your skin. The sap found in giant hogweed contains furocoumarins that cause serious skin inflammation activated by exposure to the sun.




3. Wild Parsnip
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Description: Wild parsnip grows from 50 to 150 centimetres high, has compound leaves that are arranged alternately on the stem and leaves that are mitten-shaped. Yellow flowers form a flat-topped umbrella-like cluster and are seen from late May to early fall. The wild parsnip has a distinctive parsnip odour.

Where: Generally found along the edges of plantations, roadsides, meadows and in old pastures.

Adverse effects: Similar to the giant hogweed, wild parsnip contains furocoumarins that when absorbed by the skin, and stimulated by ultraviolet light, the furocoumarins begin destroying cells and skin tissue, which appears as redness and blistering of the skin.




4. Pokeweed
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Description: Pokeweed has a red trunk-like stem, which becomes hollow as the plant matures. Egg-shaped leaves are large (25 centimetres long), dark green, alternate and attached to the stem by a red stalk. Flowers appear green to white and the fruit is green, turning a deep purple to black as it matures.

Where: Meadows, edges of woods and waste areas in the Southwestern Ontario.

Adverse effects: Pokeweed is poisonous to humans and animals. Symptoms of pokeweed poisoning include sweating, blurred vision, abdominal pains, weakness, vomiting and unconsciousness.




5. Spotted Water Hemlock
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Description: The water hemlock grows up to 2.2 metres tall, with small, white flowers shaped like an inverted umbrella that bloom from July to August. This plant has alternate, coarsely-toothed leaves and a stout, green stem spotted with purple that seeps a yellow oily liquid when cut.

Where: Marshes, swamps, stream banks, ditches, moist thickets and meadows throughout Ontario

Adverse effects: The plant contains cicutoxin, a toxic alcohol that attacks the central nervous system. Symptoms of poisoning appear quickly and include extreme salivation, violent convulsions, intense abdominal pain and delirium. Coma and respiratory failure can develop from 30 minutes to eight hours afterwards.





This summer, take preventative measures and learn how to identify, avoid and treat reactions from poisonous plants to protect your health in the outdoors.

If you require assistance identifying a plant, you can take a photo and submit it along with its location to the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs' (OMAFRA) online weed identification service atwww.weedinfo.ca

If you believe you or a child has touched or consumed a poisonous plant, you should call the Ontario Poison Centre immediately at 1- 800-268-9017 for assistance.
 
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一心无住

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water hemlock很常见啊。
 

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到处都是。
 

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又增加几样:
Bloodroot

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This seemingly innocent flower produces a toxic, red sap that can kill animals when ingested. When the sap is applied to skin, it can cause severe tissue damage.

Native from Nova Scotia to Manitoba, this flower is a member of the poppy family.

It blooms in the spring and prefers moist soil and partial shade.


Winterberry

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Found in Ontario, Quebec and parts of Atlantic Canada, the seeds, bark, leaves and berries of this plant can cause nausea and low blood pressure when ingested.


. The daffodil

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In May, 2008 a group of school children in Suffolk, England fell ill after a daffodil bulb was added to a soup. The bulbs are commonly mistaken for onions, which can lead to cases of accidental poisoning.

Symptoms of daffodil poisoning include nausea, dizziness, and vomiting.

The daffodil has been introduced to Canada and can be found growing in parts of B.C., Ontario, Quebec, andAtlantic Canada.


American nightshade

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This plant was introduced to Canada and can be found growing in B.C. and Manitoba.

The berries this plant produces can cause death if ingested, with the level of toxicity varying depending on the genetic strain of the plant and type of soil it's growing in.
 
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怎么最后这个american nightshade很像能吃的甜甜儿呢?不会弄错了吧?

我查了一下,是美洲甜甜儿,美洲龙葵。怎么在中国能吃,在美洲就不能吃了?
 
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又增加2种:


Moonseed, Canada (Menispermum canadense) - Fruits are poisonous. They resemble those of wild grapes.
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Sumac, Poison (Toxicodendron vernix) - Poisonous to touch. Causes a Poison Ivy-like rash
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scotty

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禁止用除草剂后,这些毒草越来越多。现在小孩子在外面玩,都要非常小心。
 

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lindamy

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禁止用除草剂后,这些毒草越来越多。现在小孩子在外面玩,都要非常小心。
现在City大量使用除草剂,很多地方痕迹很明显,成片野草枯死,连有些树都被杀死了,还插着牌子,提醒小心毒草和使用了杀草剂。太多毒草,不易辨认,防不胜防,还有吸血的Tick,唯有尽量不要off road,不要走入草丛。
 

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又增加几样:
Bloodroot

浏览附件621262

This seemingly innocent flower produces a toxic, red sap that can kill animals when ingested. When the sap is applied to skin, it can cause severe tissue damage.

Native from Nova Scotia to Manitoba, this flower is a member of the poppy family.

It blooms in the spring and prefers moist soil and partial shade.


Winterberry

浏览附件621263

Found in Ontario, Quebec and parts of Atlantic Canada, the seeds, bark, leaves and berries of this plant can cause nausea and low blood pressure when ingested.


. The daffodil

浏览附件621264

In May, 2008 a group of school children in Suffolk, England fell ill after a daffodil bulb was added to a soup. The bulbs are commonly mistaken for onions, which can lead to cases of accidental poisoning.

Symptoms of daffodil poisoning include nausea, dizziness, and vomiting.

The daffodil has been introduced to Canada and can be found growing in parts of B.C., Ontario, Quebec, andAtlantic Canada.


American nightshade

浏览附件621265

This plant was introduced to Canada and can be found growing in B.C. and Manitoba.

The berries this plant produces can cause death if ingested, with the level of toxicity varying depending on the genetic strain of the plant and type of soil it's growing in.

这不是我上次上传的黑星星吗?好多人说,这东西对人体有益,包治百病
 

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怎样辨别毒藤:
How to Identify Poison Ivy



The best way to avoid problems with poison ivy is to learn to identify it. Since poison ivy in present in a vast portion of North America, it's likely you'll run it to it at some point if you live in areas it grows or if you travel to any. grow almos There are only three things that are absolutely true about poison ivy identification: (Note that the following criteria applies to poison ivy but not necessarily poison oak or sumac.)


1. Poison ivy always has 3 leaves

3leaflets.jpg
Poison ivy never has more than 3 leaves on each stem. If you see 5 leaves, 7 leaves or any number higher than 3, you're not looking at poison ivy (however, you could be looking at poison oak, which is also harmful).

If you see a group of 3 leaves on a vine but also see a group of 5 or more leaves on the same vine, then that can't be poison ivy. You're most likely looking at Virginia Creeper instead. Occasionally a poison ivy leaflet drops off and you'll have 2 in a bunch, but never more than 3.

Getting technical: The correct way to describe poison ivy is to say each poison ivy leaf consists of 3 leaflets. The picture at the right shows one poison ivy leaf (circled in orange). That leaf consists of 3 leaflets. Whether you call them leaves or leaflets, just remember there are always 3.


2. Poison ivy does not have thorns

Raspberries, blackberries, and other bramble-type plants look very similar to poison ivy because they have 3 leaflets and even may have leaf "notches" like poison ivy can have, but they have thorns on the stems. Poison ivy stems are either smooth or hairy, but never thorny.

The picture to the right is NOT poison ivy because the stem is thorny. I believe this is a wild raspberry bush since I saw others in the vicinity that were bearing fruit.

Click the photo to see a larger version that clearly shows the thorns. In the full size photo, look in the lower right corner... that IS poison ivy hidden in with the raspberry bush. Look out for that sort of thing because poison ivy frequently grows intermixed with other plants!


3. "Alternately" means each leaf or group of leaflets doesn't grow right across from each other and usually alternate sides of the stem (in other words, as you're looking at the plant, one set of leaflets might be on the left side, the next set of leaflets on the right, the next on the left, etc.). The poison ivy picture on the right shows alternate leafing well. Click on the photo to see a larger version.

The other type of leaf arrangement is called "opposite". Leaves that are arranged opposite from each other are right across the stem from each other. Young Box Elder trees are often mistaken for poison ivy, however, Box Elder leaves are opposite. Poison ivy leaves are never opposite - they are always alternate.

The diagram below shows more about the difference between alternate and opposite leaf arrangement:


alternate-diagram.jpg


Alternate Leaf Pattern: Alternate leaves only have a single leaf (or group of leaflets) attached at one location on a stem, often the leaves alternate from one side to the other as they go along the stem or they may be in a spiral pattern. Poison has three leaflets occurring alternately on the stem.

opposite-diagram.jpg


Opposite Leaf Pattern : Opposite leaves refer to two leaves being attached at the same location on a stem, but opposite each other on either side of the stem. Box elder and young maple trees have opposite leaves.


Uncertain Identification Criteria
Now that we've learned the three hard and fast rules, here is other popular criteria for poison ivy identification. However, you can't completely count on these things to ALWAYS be true, so don't ever count on them exclusively.



  • Poison ivy stems are not always red.
    Sometimes yes, but they can also be green.
  • Sometimes there is a red dot in the middle of the three leaflets, but not always.
    Some poison ivy plants are entirely green with no red any place on any of them.
  • The stems have "hair" on them (dark tendril-like hairs).
    Sometimes yes, especially when the plant is trying to climb something. However, stems can also be slightly fuzzy or even completely bare. The stems can also be woody.
  • The leaves are not always shiny and/or red.
    Leaves can be light green, yellow green, dark green, orangish, reddish, or even brownish. Leaves might be oily-looking or they may be dull. Sometimes they can even be multi-colored (green with yellow or brown spots) if the plant has been out in hot sun for too long.
  • Most leaves have a notched pattern, but others do not.
    The picture at the top of the page (showing leaflets) shows a plant with notches, but the photo showing alternate leaf arrangement does not. Although notches are common, leave sides (margins) might be smooth or slightly toothed. Leaves can be short or long, thin or fat, large or small, curly or straight. Worse yet, leaves can look very different but still be on the same plant.
  • Poison ivy has white (or very pale yellow) flowers and white berries.
    This is true, but the plant might not be in bloom or have berries at the moment.
Poison Ivy Habitat
Poison Ivy can grow practically anywhere. It can be in deep woods to full sun fields to the beach. It grows on telephone poles, signs, fences and trees, or it can be a free-standing plant or bush. It has no soil preferences and can grow in anything from dry, sandy, clay-filled soil to dark, rich soil. It often creeps along the ground. So long as there's some kind of soil, sunlight and water, it will grow.

It is not limited to wild areas, either. Poison ivy is fond of gardens and fence lines in your yard. It likes to grow against the house or garage or inside of your bushes and hedges. It will be hidden in with your other plants.

About the only place poison ivy usually does not grow (at least not for very long) is in mowed lawns. That's because mowers cut off the leaves. Poison ivy needs its leaves to make food through photosynthesis. Without food, it will die.

This is why you almost never see it growing in the middle of a lawn. However, if you only weed whack a fence every couple weeks, poison ivy can move right in.

Totally off the wall: I worked as an environmental educator for 5 years and had at least one live, potted poison ivy plant in my office for show and tell. It had a nice sunny window in my office, so it had light and water... really all it needed. However, keeping the plants taught me two things: it does not like to live in pots and it does not like to be overwatered. I managed to kill (unintentionally) every plant I had. So, there's your solution: pot it and overwater it. You'll kill it, guaranteed.

How to Kill Poison Ivy
An almost guaranteed way to kill ivy off in the yard is to use a spectrum herbicide. However, be careful, because it will kill everything, not just the ivy.

I'm not a fan of chemicals at all, so I prefer to go with a different method: put vinegar on the leaves and the sun will help kill it off. However, you usually have to do that more than once to be effective. Again - be careful because vinegar will also kill everything else it touches. I conductied an experiment with this method and had good results.

Of course, you can't and shouldn't carry weed killer on a photo shoot. Even if you used it, it would not work instantaneously. A better idea is to just learn to avoid poison ivy.

By the way, NEVER burn poison ivy plants or vines! The urushiol oil can spread in the wind, get into your lungs (or someone else's), and cause a very severe reaction.
 

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现在City大量使用除草剂,很多地方痕迹很明显,成片野草枯死,连有些树都被杀死了,还插着牌子,提醒小心毒草和使用了杀草剂。太多毒草,不易辨认,防不胜防,还有吸血的Tick,唯有尽量不要off road,不要走入草丛。
确信不是今年大旱干死的?
 

Anakin

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都快秋天了
 
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