祝融号传回火星照片,并下到火星表面行走。6月7日送回地球高清图片

向问天

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美国媒体报道中国的祝融火星车。


 

thundebay

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这些都在火星上?
【南方丹灵真老天君,号曰南方火德赤帝炎帝神农,火帝也,其精荧惑,下应衡山神仙;】

道教比三清还上一辈的五方五帝里,南方赤帝住在火星。荧惑就是火星的古代名字。五方五帝是自然造化生成的原始大帝,地位很高
 

向问天

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Tianwen-1 sent back HD images of landing site on Mars
By Global TimesPublished: Jun 07, 2021 05:02 PM

Left is before and right is after the landing feat. Photo: CNSA

Left is before and right is after the landing feat. Photo: CNSA

China National Space Administration released HD images of landing site of China’s first Mars probe mission Tianwen-1. The probe’s lander and Zhurong rover, and their surroundings are clearly seen in the images.
 

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NASA 的 Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter 搭载的 HiRISE 相机 和 天问1号轨道器拍下的 着陆器+祝融号火星车 照片相互印证:祝融号走了20多米

(不过,如同玉兔1号、2号一定会先绕着着陆器走一圈一样,祝融号说不定也先绕了着陆器一圈才向南走,和 6月2号拍摄的位置相距 ~20m)




1623380836793.png


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Tianwen-1 sent back HD images of landing site on Mars
By Global TimesPublished: Jun 07, 2021 05:02 PM

Left is before and right is after the landing feat. Photo: CNSA

Left is before and right is after the landing feat. Photo: CNSA

China National Space Administration released HD images of landing site of China’s first Mars probe mission Tianwen-1. The probe’s lander and Zhurong rover, and their surroundings are clearly seen in the images.
 
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美国

美国科学家看中国火星车驶入新太空竞赛​

2021年6月12日 01:44
美国宇航局毅力号火星车拍摄到的机智号第三次飞行。(2021年4月25日)


美国宇航局"毅力号"火星车拍摄到的"机智号"第三次飞行。(2021年4月25日)
美中两国的火星车和探测器正同时探测着火星,它们源源不断地向地球输送着图像和数据。地球物理学教授埃德温·凯特(Edwin Kite)对这一系列数据和图像进行了仔细深入的研究。

“我对太阳系和系外行星的宜居性很感兴趣,” 凯特在他芝加哥大学的实验室里对美国之音解释道。除了研究由上世纪六七十年代登月的美国宇航员带回的几块月球岩石外,他的科研领域传统上是依靠望远镜和分析流星陨石来完成相关研究。

但如今直接在火星地表执行任务的火星探索正帮助他和他的同事们对这颗红色星球有一个更直接、更完整的了解。

“从发现一个新现象,到依据这一新发现形成一个假设,再到发送一个新探测器去检测这一假设,这一过程现在可以很快完成,” 凯特告诉美国之音。“我们现在还只触及了火星上有待发现事物的皮毛。我们不知道哪个国家的火星车或探测器会撞见能开启下一阶段探索的事物。进行这种勘探的国家越多,对所有人来说越好。”

美国国家航空航天局(NASA)局长比尔·纳尔逊(Bill Nelson)在最近的一次美国国会听证会上通过远程连线作证。纳尔逊曾是一名宇航员,也曾是代表佛罗里达州的美国联邦参议员。他在听证会上对中国太空计划最近取得的成功发出警告。他说,中国的太空计划并不局限于火星探测。

“他们想把三个大型着陆器送到月球南极。那里是有水的区域,” 他说。“而我们还需要一两年时间才能把一个小得多的着陆器送到那一区域。”

纳尔逊敦促议员们支持NASA的“阿尔忒弥斯”计划(Artemis program),该计划准备再次将人类---包括首名女性---送至月球,而最终实现人类登陆火星的目标。
纳尔逊说,中国也有类似的计划图景。
“我认为,在决定我们是否该严肃对待此事并积极运作人类重返月球的计划时,这成了新增的一个考虑因素,” 纳尔逊说。
“中国正在迅速赶上美国,欧洲人也已参与到这场太空竞赛中,” 芝加哥大学天文学和天体物理学教授洛基·科尔布(Rocky Kolb)说。他认为,一场新的太空竞赛可以是互惠互利的。“竞争促使每个人都拿出自己的最佳表现。它推动人们不断前进,而太空中确实有很多值得探索的东西,” 他说。

科尔布希望看到美国和中国的太空项目既合作又竞争。

“我认为,如果美国能够像现在与欧洲航天局合作那样与中国合作,那将是一件很棒的事,会给我们的研究增添很多东西。中国有很多人才和很多资源可以为我们所用,他们有雄厚的资金去探索太空。我认为这是件人类应该共同做的事情,” 科尔布说。

但凯特和科尔布也都承认,美国和中国之间能实际进行多少合作是有限度的。
“和平探索太空所涉及的技术也可用于军事用途,” 科尔布对美国之音说。

凯特表示,虽然有一些法律和政治上的障碍阻止NASA与中国航天局的合作,但这些限制“不适用于学术机构所从事的非NASA资助工作”,比如他本人的研究。

目前,凯特、科尔布及全球科学界人士正继续检视从火星传回的诱人数据和图像,这些数据和图像可能会提供有关地球生命起源的线索。科尔布指出,人类的好奇心和对知识的渴求超越国界。

“火星是颗大行星,有很多地方可以探索,也有很多问题悬而未决。每一辆火星车都在做着不同的事,我们能探索到的东西的总和很重要,” 科尔布说。“火星只有一颗,它既不属于美国,也不属于中国。”
 

lindamy

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中国的火星探测器祝融在着陆点发现了水的证据​

China's Mars rover uncovers evidence of water at landing site​


In this image released by the China National Space Administration on Friday, June 11, 2021, the Chinese Mars rover Zhurong is seen near its landing platform taken by a remote camera that was dropped into position by the rover. (CNSA via AP)
In this image released by the China National Space Administration on Friday, June 11, 2021, the Chinese Mars rover Zhurong is seen near its landing platform taken by a remote camera that was dropped into position by the rover. (CNSA via AP)

Published May 11, 2022 2:44 p.m. EDT

China's Zhurong rover has found evidence suggesting that water persisted on Mars for much longer than expected.

Zhurong landed in a large plain in Mars' northern hemisphere called Utopia Planitia on May 15, 2021 -- where NASA's Viking 2 lander touched down in 1976.

The rover's primary mission, which lasted for three months, was to search for signs of ancient life. It has investigated the minerals, environment and distribution of water and ice in the plain, which is all part of the largest impact basin in the Martian northern lowlands. The rover continues to explore its landing site and send information back to the Tianwen-1 orbiter circling the planet.

Data returned from the rover's initial survey of the basin suggests that the Utopia Planitia basin contained water during a time when many scientists believed Mars to be dry and cold.

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A study detailing the findings published Wednesday in the journal Science Advances.

A changing planet

Mars was once warm and wet billions of years ago, but something changed and caused the planet to become the arid, frozen desert it is today. The red planet entered this period during what is called the Amazonian epoch, which began about 3 billion years ago and remains ongoing.

"The most significant and novel thing is that we found hydrated minerals at the landing site which stands on the young Amazonian terrain, and these hydrated minerals are (indicators) for the water activities such as (groundwater) activities," said lead study author Yang Liu, a researcher at the Chinese Academy of Sciences' State Key Laboratory of Space Weather and the academy's Center for Excellence in Comparative Planetology.

The researchers analyzed the Zhurong rover's data about the sediments and minerals found in the basin as well as the analysis performed by several of the rover's instruments of its surroundings. They found hydrated silica and sulfates, similar to hydrated minerals discovered by other missions studying different regions of the red planet.

The minerals were contained within bright-toned rocks, where colors help showcase their composition. The researchers determined that these rocks at the landing site make up a layer of duricrust. This type of layer can form when a substantial amount of water, either rising groundwater or melting subsurface ice, basically turns the soil into a hard crust once the water evaporates.

The discovery of this duricrust layer, which is thicker than duricrust likely formed by atmospheric water vapor found at other Martian landing sites, suggests that Utopia Planitia had a more active water cycle tens of millions of years ago than scientists expected.

This adds to the increasing evidence discovered by Martian missions that the red planet went through cycles of being wet and warm, and dry and cold, rather than making one enduring, dramatic climate shift. These climatic ebbs and flows may have been the result of active volcanoes or impacts from other celestial objects, Yang said.

Fueling exploration


This discovery came as a surprise to researchers because orbiters' previous observations didn't uncover the signature of hydrated minerals in the landing site. It is why exploration using the rover was key, Yang said.

Utopia Planitia has been of interest to scientists because some speculate the region once hosted an ocean.

"So the discovery of hydrated minerals (has) significant indications on the geological and water history of the region and the climate evolution of Mars," Yang said.

Yang said he hopes that the rover could analyze the layers of a crater in the plain to find more insights about the history of water in the region.

The findings also suggest that there could be "considerable stores" of water in the hydrated minerals or even ground ice, which future human explorers could use during crewed missions to Mars.

"One of the most important resources for human explorers is water," Yang said. "Hydrated minerals, which contain structural water, and ground ice can be used as the important water resource on Mars."

 
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