新研究重启争议:新冠“零号病人”究竟是谁?科学家们关注 COVID 的动物起源

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新研究重启争议:新冠“零号病人”究竟是谁?​

CARL ZIMMER, BENJAMIN MUELLER, 储百亮2021年11月19日
2020年3月,医护人员在中国武汉协助一名新冠肺炎患者登上救护车。


2020年3月,医护人员在中国武汉协助一名新冠肺炎患者登上救护车。 AGENCE FRANCE-PRESSE — GETTY IMAGES

周四,一位科学家在研究了早期新冠病例在中国的公开记录后发表一份报告,称世界卫生组织的一项调查对大流行的时序研究很有可能存在错误。新的分析表明,第一名已知的新冠病人是武汉一家大型动物市场的商贩,而不是在该市场数公里之外的某地居住的一名会计。

这份于周四发表在权威期刊《科学》上的报告将重启——尽管仍不能解决——一场争议,即大流行是始于在市场出售的野生动物导致的溢出,还是武汉一所病毒实验室的泄漏,或是其他什么方式。这场百年来最严重的公共卫生灾难从何而来,已经成为一个加剧地缘政治冲突的问题,但近几个月来,很少见到有助于解答疑问的新信息出现。

发表报告的科学家迈克尔·伍罗贝是亚利桑那大学病毒演化追踪领域的权威,他对疫情时间线的梳理,依据的是在医学期刊中已有的公开资料,以及一家中国新闻媒体对据信是最早得到记录的两名感染病患的视频访谈。

伍罗贝提出,那位与华南海鲜批发市场有关联的商贩,以及对最初一批与市场有关的入院病患的分析,都强烈表明大流行始于该市场。

新闻简报:欢迎订阅新闻简报,包括每周四由华文记者荣筱箐撰写的“海外华人札记”专栏,获取全球重大资讯,了解美国华人社区热点话题。

“在一座有1100万人口的城市,一半的早期病例跟一个足球场大小的地方有关联,”伍罗贝说。“如果疫情暴发不是始于这个市场,那就很难解释这个现象了。”

多位专家表示伍罗贝的侦查工作是扎实的,其中包括一位受世卫组织委托的大流行调查人员,他们认为第一个已知新冠病例很有可能是一名海鲜商贩。

但他们中的一些人也认为,现有的证据仍不足以对大流行源起这个更大的问题给出确凿答案。他们提出,病毒有可能在该商贩病例之前的某个时间感染了一名“零号病人”,然后在市场达到了大范围传播的临界点。对病毒基因组变化的研究——其中包括伍罗贝自己的一项研究——显示,最早的感染大致上发生在2019年11月中旬,也就是该商贩得病几周前。

“我对这个分析并无异议,”弗雷德·哈钦森癌症研究中心的病毒学家杰斯·布鲁姆说。“但我认为这些数据都不够有力或完整,因此除了华南海鲜市场显然是一个超级传播事件以外,对其他的结论仍然不太有信心。”

布鲁姆还指出,在世卫组织与中国研究人员合作得出的这份报告中,这已经不是第一次发现错误,包括初期病患与市场存在的潜在关联。

“有这么多病例,在时间问题上仍然不断出现前后不一致的情况,这很难理解,”他说。

2020年1月,武汉卫生应急车辆离开关闭的华南海鲜市场。

2020年1月,武汉卫生应急车辆离开关闭的华南海鲜市场。 NOEL CELIS/AGENCE FRANCE-PRESSE — GETTY IMAGES

“这是出问题的地方”

2019年12月底,武汉几家医院的医生注意到一些在华南海鲜批发市场工作的人出现了神秘的肺炎病例。该市场潮湿且通风不良,出售海鲜、家禽、肉类和野生动物。12月30日,公共卫生官员要求医院报告与该市场有关的新病例。

由于担心2002年中国动物市场暴发的SARS疫情重演,中国官员下令关闭华南海鲜市场,武汉警方于2020年1月1日将其关闭。尽管采取了这些措施,武汉的新增病例仍成倍增加。

2020年1月11日,武汉当局表示,病例于12月8日开始出现。今年2月,他们确认最早的患者是一位陈姓武汉居民,他于12月8日患病,与该市场没有关联。

中国官员和一些外部专家怀疑,最初与市场相关的病例比例很高,可能是一种被称为确认偏差的统计误差。他们的理由是,去年12月30日官员呼吁报告与市场相关的疾病,可能导致医生忽视了其他与该市场无关的病例。

据中国环球电视网报道,中国疾病预防控制中心主任高福在2020年5月表示:“可能最早,我们推测海鲜市场可能有(病毒),但现在看来,海鲜市场本身也是受害单位。”

到2020年春,特朗普政府的高级官员开始宣传大流行的另一种说法:病毒是从武汉病毒研究所逃逸出来的,该研究所的一个园区距离长江对岸的华南海鲜市场大约13公里。

今年1月,世卫组织挑选的研究人员访问了中国,并询问了一名据称在12月8日出现症状的会计。由此得出的一份极具影响力的报告于2021年3月发表,将此人描述为第一个已知病例。

但生态健康联盟的疾病生态学家、世卫组织团队成员彼得·达扎克表示,他被伍罗贝的分析所说服,他们错了。

“12月8日这个日期是错的,”达扎克说。

他说,世卫组织的团队从来没有问过那位会计他出现症状的日期。12月8日这个日期是由湖北省新华医院的医生提供的,他们处理了其他早期病例,但这位陈姓病人并非由他们医治。“所以这是出问题的地方,”达扎克说。

达扎克说,对世卫组织的专家来说,这次走访是个死胡同:这位会计与动物市场、实验室或密集人群没有明显联系。他告诉他们,他平时喜欢上网和慢跑,不经常旅行。“他是你能找到的最普通不过的人,”达扎克说。

达扎克说,如果该团队将那名海鲜商贩确认为已知的第一个病例,他们就会更积极地追问她在哪个摊位工作,她的产品来自哪里等问题。

今年,达扎克是实验室泄漏理论最强烈的批评者之一。他和他的组织生态健康联盟因与武汉病毒研究所的研究合作而备受质疑。上个月,美国国立卫生研究院表示,生态健康联盟违反了其对蝙蝠冠状病毒研究的拨款条款和条件。

尽管湖北省新华医院的医生说,陈姓病人的病情于12月8日开始,但治疗他的武汉市中心医院的一名资深医生告诉一家中国新闻媒体,他是在12月16日左右出现症状的。

当被问及陈先生的病例时,中国国家卫生健康委员会表示支持负责采访湖北新华医院医生的世界卫生组织–中国调查中方负责人梁万年的评论。梁万年在今年2月的新闻发布会上表示,最早的新冠病例在12月8日出现症状,且与华南海鲜市场“无关”。

今年2月,世卫组织新冠病毒调查小组成员在中国武汉接受体温检测。

今年2月,世卫组织新冠病毒调查小组成员在中国武汉接受体温检测。 HECTOR RETAMAL/AGENCE FRANCE-PRESSE — GETTY IMAGES

错误和不一致

世界卫生组织专家在他们的报告得出结论,该病毒最有可能通过动物外溢传播给人类,但他们无法确认华南海鲜市场是源头。相比之下,他们说实验室泄漏“极不可能”。

该报告中有若干错误和缺陷,因而受到抨击。《华盛顿邮报》在7月透露,该报告列出的几个早期患者的病毒样本是错误的——包括第一个官方病例——并错误地将第一批家庭病例与华南海鲜市场联系起来。世界卫生组织承诺会修复这些错误,但它们仍存在于世卫组织网站上的报告中。(世卫组织表示将询问该报告的作者是否以及如何纠正这些错误。)

今年5月,也就是世界卫生组织和中国的报告发表两个月后,包括伍罗贝在内的18位著名科学家在《科学》杂志上发表信件回应,指责世界卫生组织团队对实验室泄漏理论一笔带过。他们认为,需要更多的研究来确定一种解释是否比另一种更有可能。

作为研究流感艾滋病毒起源的专家,伍罗贝试图拼凑出新冠大流行最开始的那几天。他读了2020年5月武汉当地医生和卫生官员撰写的一份关于早期病例的研究报告,他看到一个病例很像是陈先生:一名41岁的男子,与华南海鲜市场没有接触。但该研究的作者将他的症状出现时间写为12月16日,而不是12月8日。

然后,关于12月8日这一日期,伍罗贝找到了看似是第二个独立消息来源:陈先生本人。

“我16日在白天发烧,”一位据称是陈先生的男子在2020年3月接受总部在上海的媒体《澎湃新闻》的视频采访时说。视频显示,陈先生现年41岁,曾在一家公司财务部工作,从未去过华南海鲜市场。官方报道称,他住在武汉市武昌区,离市场几十公里。

《纽约时报》无法独立确认视频中男子的身份。

12月16日,除了发烧,陈先生说他感到胸闷,当天去了医院。他说:“即使没有任何剧烈运动,只要动一点点力气,就像我现在和你说话一样,我也会感到气短。”

伍罗贝说,视频中显示的医疗记录也许可以解释为什么世卫组织–中国报告搞错了日期。医疗记录的一页写着陈先生需要做的拔牙手术。另一页写的是12月9日开出的抗生素处方,以应对前一天的发烧——可能就是牙科手术那一天。

在视频中,陈先生推测他可能“在我去医院时”感染了新冠——这可能是指他早些时候的牙科手术。

《华盛顿邮报》7月曾指出,世卫组织提供的关于12月8日病例的细节似乎更符合病毒样本在线数据库中一位12月16日发病的患者记录。世卫组织在回应中表示,正在调查这一事实出入。

该机构的一位发言人告诉《纽约时报》,因专家组对健康数据的获取有限,世卫组织对首个已知病例“难以置评”。他表示,调查人员有必要继续寻找更早的感染病例。

2020年2月,医务人员将一名死于新冠病毒的患者移出医院。

2020年2月,医务人员将一名死于新冠病毒的患者移出医院。 CHINATOPIX, VIA ASSOCIATED PRESS

模糊的关联

在经伍罗贝修正的时间线中,最早的病例不是陈先生,而是一位名叫魏桂贤(音)的海鲜商贩,她在12月11日左右出现了症状。(在澎湃新闻发布的同一段视频中,魏桂贤说她的严重症状始于12月11日,她还告诉《华尔街日报》,自己从12月10日开始感到不适。世卫组织-中国的报告将一个12月11日的病例列为与市场相关。)

伍罗贝发现,在12月30日——也就是武汉当局提醒医生注意与市场的关联病例当天——之前,各医院已经报告了十几例疑似病例。

他认定武汉中心医院与湖北省新华医院在12月30日前各自发现了七例后均被确诊为新冠的不明原因肺炎患者。这两家医院的七例确诊中各有四例都与市场有关。

伍罗贝认为,通过对这些病例的集中研究,他可以排除确认偏差导致溯源结果倾向于市场的可能性。

但也有一些科学家认为,还远不能确定疫情就是从市场开始的。

“他依靠现有数据出色地完成了重塑工作,这绝对是一个合理的假设,”哥伦比亚大学梅尔曼公共卫生学院的病毒学家W·伊恩·利普金表示。“但我认为我们永远不会知道究竟发生了什么,因为已经过去了两年,事实依然模糊。”

在马萨诸塞州坎布里奇的布罗德研究所担任博士后研究员艾琳娜·陈(音)是最支持调查实验室泄漏理论的学者之一,她声称只有获得了最早发现于11月的早期病例新细节,才能帮助科学家追踪到疫情起源。

她表示,“这说明主要问题就在于缺乏数据获取的途径,以及世卫组织–中国的报告中存在错误。”

---------------------------​

Eleanor Goodman对本文有翻译贡献,Liu Yi对本文有研究贡献。
Carl Zimmer撰写“Matter”专栏。他是《Life's Edge: The Search For What It Means To Be Alive》等14本书的作者。欢迎在TwitterFacebook上关注他。

Benjamin Mueller是《纽约时报》英国记者。自2014年起,曾在城市版面担任警察和执法条口记者。欢迎在Twitter上关注他 @benjmueller

储百亮(Chris Buckley)是《纽约时报》首席中国记者。他成长于澳大利亚悉尼,在过去30年中的大部分时间内居住在中国。在2012年加入《纽约时报》之前,他是路透社的一名记者。欢迎在Twitter上关注他:@ChuBailiang

翻译:纽约时报中文网

点击查看本文英文版。

 
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chicago666

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永沉史海了,不可能查到。

能查到的,不一定是第几号了。
 

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Fresh look at pandemic origins points straight to food market in Wuhan, scientist says​

By Maggie Fox, CNN

Updated 10:34 PM ET, Thu November 18, 2021


New information furthers debate on Covid-19 pandemic origins​


(CNN)A fresh look at the possible origins of the Covid-19 pandemic points straight back to the Huanan seafood market in the Chinese city of Wuhan, a scientist who has been studying the pandemic from the beginning asserted Thursday.

The researcher, Michael Worobey of the University of Arizona, has put together a painstaking timeline of all the known cases of SARS-Cov-2 before it was known a pandemic was starting.

He found many were in people who lived or worked near the market, the original suspected source of the pandemic, even if they didn't have direct links to the market.

But as Chinese government officials sought to deflect blame, and as the Trump administration and, later, intelligence officials in the Biden administration, pointed to the possibility of a virology research lab in Wuhan, the picture has become muddled.


Coronavirus almost certainly came from an animal, not a lab leak, top scientists argue

Coronavirus almost certainly came from an animal, not a lab leak, top scientists argue

Worobey, who specializes in tracing the genetic evolution of viruses, has found considerable evidence that the virus arose in an animal, and did not start circulating until the end of 2019. He has published multiple studies on the probable origins of the virus. But he said he wanted to check his own theories against the real-life evidence from what was known about actual people with documented infections.

So he dove into the known cases. He says what he found strengthens the theory that the virus originated in animals sold in the market -- much like the first SARS outbreak in 2002-2004 that infected 8,000 people before it was stopped.

One case especially stood out -- that of a 41-year-old accountant who allegedly got sick on December 8, 2019 and who had no connection to the market. The case has been cited as evidence the pandemic must not have started at the market. Worobey found records that showed the man didn't become ill with Covid-19 until later in December and that his December 8 problem was related to his teeth.

"This is corroborated by hospital records and a scientific paper that reports his COVID-19 onset date as 16 December and date of hospitalization as 22 December," Worobey wrote in a commentary in the journal Science.

The Covid-19 pandemic almost didn't happen, a new genetic dating study shows

The Covid-19 pandemic almost didn't happen, a new genetic dating study shows

That would make a seafood vendor who worked at the market and who got sick December 11, 2019, the earliest documented case, Worobey said.
Other research helped Worobey come up with a map of the earliest cases that clusters them all around the market.

"That so many of the more than 100 COVID-19 cases from December with no identified epidemiologic link to Huanan Market nonetheless lived in its direct vicinity is notable and provides compelling evidence that community transmission started at the market," he wrote.

"Big red flashing arrow"​

"It tells us that there's a big red flashing arrow pointing at Huanan Market as the most likely place that the pandemic started," Worobey told CNN. "The virus didn't come from some other part of Wuhan and then get to Huanan market. The evidence speaks really quite strongly to the virus starting at the market and then leaking into the neighborhoods around the market."
China to test thousands of Wuhan blood samples in Covid-19 probe

China to test thousands of Wuhan blood samples in Covid-19 probe

The World Health Organization made its own investigation into the origins of the pandemic, and said animals were the most likely origin of the pandemic. But WHO also said its conclusions were not definite and asked the Chinese government to provide more information and access.

This information might not ever come to light, Worobey said. The Chinese government cleared the Huanan market of all animals and disinfected it when it became clear it was associated with an outbreak of infectious disease in January of 2020-- removing the risk of more spread, but also destroying crucial evidence.

"I wouldn't call this conclusive evidence, but I would call this pretty darn strong evidence," Worobey said.

The journal Science subjected Worobey's research to outside scrutiny before publishing it. And Peter Daszak, president of EcoHealth Alliance and one of WHO's investigators, said he thinks it holds up.

"I was really impressed with the detective work he's put in. Everything he says about the Dec 8th case fits with what we experienced in Wuhan on the WHO trip -- there were a cluster of early cases coming into hospitals in late December and clinicians worked back to the presumed date of onset," Daszak told

"They just made a mistake with this person because he likely visited hospital for another reason. This puts the first known case as a Huanan market worker, not the accountant who lived near one of the Wuhan lab campuses," Daszak added. "This is now adding to around 10 pieces of other scientific evidence that I've seen since the end of our WHO work, all of which point towards an origin through the wildlife farms and markets. No single piece of evidence is totally conclusive, but when you lay them all out, it really tips the balance towards the 'natural' origin."

Worobey joined a group of scientists who signed a letter in Science in May saying the theory that the coronavirus leaked from a lab needs thorough investigation.

"I co-signed that letter in Science suggesting that the lab leak needs to be investigated, which I still believe and that it should be," Worobey told CNN. "But in the meantime, holy smokes -- is there a lot of evidence against it and in favor of natural origin."

 

MAP2012

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基本上是一个科学伪命题。零号是无症状呢?
 

lindamy

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最开始的几位病人大多与海鲜市场有关,但是12月8日第一位病人,离得很远,经过仔细调查发现,他12月8日多次去医院是做牙科手术,12月16日开始出现症状,很可能是医院被传染的。
 

Hard Worker

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还是先公开徳堡病毒的文件和更早的电子烟肺的档案吧!
 

wei_cheng

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最开始的几位病人大多与海鲜市场有关,但是12月8日第一位病人,离得很远,经过仔细调查发现,他12月8日多次去医院是做牙科手术,12月16日开始出现症状,很可能是医院被传染的。

早期病例中,和华南海鲜市场无关联的可不止一位。

研究报告提到的最早新冠病例,12月6日到8日曾带家人去医院拔牙,而不是他本人去拔牙。他本人在12月8日这一天开始出现了头痛、头晕等感冒样症状,随后出现乏力、肌肉酸痛、气促等不适症状,后被证明是新冠肺炎。《科学》杂志这篇文章提到12月11日发病的一位华南海鲜市场的女性商贩并不是最早的新冠病例。

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lindamy

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Pandemic mystery: Scientists focus on COVID’s animal origins​

By LAURA UNGARtoday

FILE - Members of a World Health Organization team are seen through a window wearing protective gear during a field visit to the Hubei Animal Disease Control and Prevention Center for another day of field visit in Wuhan in central China's Hubei province, on Feb. 2, 2021. Nearly two years into the COVID-19 pandemic, the origin of the virus tormenting the world remains shrouded in mystery. (AP Photo/Ng Han Guan, File)
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FILE - Members of a World Health Organization team are seen through a window wearing protective gear during a field visit to the Hubei Animal Disease Control and Prevention Center for another day of field visit in Wuhan in central China's Hubei province, on Feb. 2, 2021. Nearly two years into the COVID-19 pandemic, the origin of the virus tormenting the world remains shrouded in mystery. (AP Photo/Ng Han Guan, File)

Nearly two years into the COVID-19 pandemic, the origin of the virus tormenting the world remains shrouded in mystery.

Most scientists believe it emerged in the wild and jumped from bats to humans, either directly or through another animal. Others theorize it escaped from a Chinese lab.

Now, with the global COVID-19 death toll surpassing 5.2 million on the second anniversary of the earliest human cases, a growing chorus of scientists is trying to keep the focus on what they regard as the more plausible “zoonotic,” or animal-to-human, theory, in the hope that what’s learned will help humankind fend off new viruses and variants.

“The lab-leak scenario gets a lot of attention, you know, on places like Twitter,” but “there’s no evidence that this virus was in a lab,” said University of Utah scientist Stephen Goldstein, who with 20 others wrote an article in the journal Cell in August laying out evidence for animal origin.

Michael Worobey, an evolutionary biologist at the University of Arizona who contributed to the article, had signed a letter with other scientists last spring saying both theories were viable. Since then, he said, his own and others’ research has made him even more confident than he had been about the animal hypothesis, which is “just way more supported by the data.”
https://apnews.com/article/coronavi...style-health-937d4c71e44781cf1d25ce6b56141eb0
Last month, Worobey published a COVID-19 timeline linking the first known human case to the Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market in Wuhan, China, where live animals were sold.

“The lab leak idea is almost certainly a huge distraction that’s taking focus away from what actually happened,” he said.

Others aren’t so sure. Over the summer, a review ordered by President Joe Biden showed that four U.S. intelligence agencies believed with low confidence that the virus was initially transmitted from an animal to a human, and one agency believed with moderate confidence that the first infection was linked to a lab.

Some supporters of the lab-leak hypothesis have theorized that researchers were accidentally exposed because of inadequate safety practices while working with samples from the wild, or perhaps after creating the virus in the laboratory. U.S. intelligence officials have rejected suspicions China developed the virus as a bioweapon.

The continuing search for answers has inflamed tensions between the U.S. and China, which has accused the U.S. of making it the scapegoat for the disaster. Some experts fear the pandemic’s origins may never be known.

FROM BATS TO PEOPLE

Scientists said in the Cell paper that SARS-CoV-2, which causes COVID-19, is the ninth documented coronavirus to infect humans. All previous ones originated in animals.

That includes the virus that caused the 2003 SARS epidemic, which also has been associated with markets selling live animals in China.

Many researchers believe wild animals were intermediate hosts for SARS-CoV-2, meaning they were infected with a bat coronavirus that then evolved. Scientists have been looking for the exact bat coronavirus involved, and in September identified three viruses in bats in Laos more similar to SARS-CoV-2 than any known viruses.

Worobey suspects raccoon dogs were the intermediate host. The fox-like mammals are susceptible to coronaviruses and were being sold live at the Huanan market, he said.

“The gold-standard piece of evidence for an animal origin” would be an infected animal from there, Goldstein said. “But as far as we know, the market was cleared out.”

Earlier this year, a joint report by the World Health Organization and China called the transmission of the virus from bats to humans through another animal the most likely scenario and a lab leak “extremely unlikely.”

But that report also sowed doubt by pegging the first known COVID-19 case as an accountant who had no connection to the Huanan market and first showed symptoms on Dec. 8, 2019. Worobey said proponents of the lab-leak theory point to that case in claiming the virus escaped from a Wuhan Institute of Virology facility near where the man lived.

According to Worobey’s research, however, the man said in an interview that his Dec. 8 illness was actually a dental problem, and his COVID-19 symptoms began on Dec. 16, a date confirmed in hospital records.

Worobey’s analysis identifies an earlier case: a vendor in the Huanan market who came down with COVID-19 on Dec. 11.

ANIMAL THREATS

Experts worry the same sort of animal-to-human transmission of viruses could spark new pandemics — and worsen this one.

Since COVID-19 emerged, many types of animals have gotten infected, including pet cats, dogs and ferrets; zoo animals such as big cats, otters and non-human primates; farm-raised mink; and white-tailed deer.

Most got the virus from people, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which says that humans can spread it to animals during close contact but that the risk of animals transmitting it to people is low.

Another fear, however, is that animals could unleash new viral variants. Some wonder if the omicron variant began this way.

“Around the world, we might have animals potentially incubating these variants even if we get (COVID-19) under control in humans,” said David O’Connor, a virology expert at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. “We’re probably not going to do a big giraffe immunization program any time soon.”

Worobey said he has been looking for genetic fingerprints that might indicate whether omicron was created when the virus jumped from humans to an animal, mutated, and then leaped back to people.

Experts say preventing zoonotic disease will require not only cracking down on illegal wildlife sales but making progress on big global problems that increase risky human-animal contact, such as habitat destruction and climate change.

Failing to fully investigate the animal origin of the virus, scientists said in the Cell paper, “would leave the world vulnerable to future pandemics arising from the same human activities that have repeatedly put us on a collision course with novel viruses.”

‘TOXIC’ POLITICS

But further investigation is stymied by superpower politics. Lawrence Gostin of Georgetown University said there has been a “bare-knuckles fight” between China and the United States.

“The politics around the origins investigation has literally poisoned the well of global cooperation,” said Gostin, director of the WHO Collaborating Center on National and Global Health Law. “The politics have literally been toxic.”

An AP investigation last year found that the Chinese government was strictly controlling all research into COVID-19′s origins and promoting fringe theories that the virus could have come from outside the country.

“This is a country that’s by instinct very closed, and it was never going to allow unfettered access by foreigners into its territory,” Gostin said.
Still, Gostin said there’s one positive development that has come out of the investigation.

WHO has formed an advisory group to look into the pandemic’s origins. And Gostin said that while he doubts the panel will solve the mystery, “they will have a group of highly qualified scientists ready to be deployed in an instant in the next pandemic.”
___

The Associated Press Health and Science Department receives support from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute’s Department of Science Education. The AP is solely responsible for all content.

 

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有人还是要把病毒溯源这事儿往沟里带。从科学角度讲,原始病毒的详细资料和数据才是对今后疫苗开发和此类病毒预防的根本依据。阻碍人们获取这些资料,就像刻意掩盖疫情爆发事实一样是要下地狱的反人类罪。
 
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